Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UW (20,000)
PSYCH (2,000)
PSYCH261 (100)

Psych 261 Chapter 13 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 13

Course Code
James Danckert

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Psych 261 Chapter 13
The Biology of Learning and Memory
Module 13.1
Learning, Memory, Amnesia, & Brain Functioning
-life without memory equals no sense of existing across time
-only synonymous with sense of self
Localized Representations of Memory
-Early Idea: Pavlov: Classical Conditioning
-Conditioned stimulus + UnConditioned Stimulus -> UnConditioned Response; after: CS-> CR
-eg. CS (sound) + UCS(Food) -> UCR (salivation); with pairings: CS (sound) -> CR(salivation)
-operant conditioning: response -> reinforcer (increased % of response) or punishment (decrease % of
-operant conditioning: response determines outcome; classical: CS/UCS occur regardless of behavior
Lashley’s search for the Engram
-Pavlov: CC(class.cond.) reflects increase in CS+UCS centre in brain
-connections between the 2 increases
-Lashley: looking for an engram (physical representation of what’s learned)
-ex. Connection between brain areas
-Lashley: cut portions of brain to sever connections, but, did not affect rat’s memory,
-thus: learning needs multiple cortical areas
The Modern Search for the Engram
-Thompson et al. Look for Engram in cerebellum; wanted to see if blocking brain areas stops learning
-found: blocking LIP (lateral interpositus nucleus) stopped rabbit from responding to UCS or CS
-found blocking other areas (eg. red nucleus) don’t have same effect; thus: LIP is necessary for learning
Types of Memory
-Difference between learning (new knowledge) and memory (remembering), but need both
Short term and Long term Memory
-Short term: just occurred, less capacity, fade quickly unless rehearsed, if forgotten then lost
-Long term: past events, large capacity, can be remembered via hints
-all info is initially short term; consolidated to long term if not interrupted
Working memory
-you remember things better if they’re interesting or familiar topics
-working memory: (like short term); temporary way to store info while you’re working with it
-ex. Delayed response task: to test limits of how long you can hold onto memory
-see light go off a door, wait (vary seconds you wait to test) and then choose which door
-store info. Via increased calcium levels (not action potentials)
-Pre-frontal cortex is the primary storage area for memory, (ex. During delay, info stored here)
-old people have a problem with working memory due to decreased activity in PFC
The HippoCampus and Amnesia
-Amnesia: memory loss; amnesia studies help clarify distinction among memory types
People with Hippocampal Damage
-various parts of hippocampus are active during formation of memory and later in recall
-anterograde amnesia: post-brain damage: can’t form memories
-retrograde amnesia: post-brain damge: lost memories had before damage (ex. Past memories)
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version