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Lecture

PSYCH291 Lecture Notes - High High


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH291
Professor
Joanne Wood

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NONEXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
3 requirements for demonstrating causality
Do people always look for covariation when they draw causal conclusions?
*Example of adoption and fertility
Do people always look for covariation when they draw causal conclusions?
Do people always look for covariation when they draw causal conclusions?
*No. People tend to look at yes/yes cell
*“positive test bias”
*People tend to “test” hypotheses by focusing on confirmatory evidence
Do people always look for covariation when they draw causal conclusions?
*No. People tend to look at yes/yes cell
*“positive test bias”
*People tend to “test” hypotheses by focusing on confirmatory evidence
*Lay examples:
Correlational studies—how do they test covariation?
Steps for the researcher:
*Measure the two variables
*Compute the correlation
Aron et al., 2000
Study 1 - Correlational
Correlational studies
Steps for the researcher:
*Measure the two variables
*Compute the correlation
Example to show conceptually, how correlations work--
Rank order of participants on Novel/ Rank order of participants On Exciting
measure
.
High scores tend to go with high scores; low scores go with low scores = a positive
correlation
.
This is example of positive correlation
In the case of a positive correlation, high scores on one measure are associated with
high scores on the other measure; low scores on one measure associated with low
scores on other measure.
Negative correlation
In the case of a negative correlation, high scores on one measure are associated with
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