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Lecture 1

PSYCH312 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Agraphia, Memory Span, Knowledge-Based Systems


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Lecture
1

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5.#Explain#phonological#awareness#and#the#role#it#is#thought#to#play#in#learning#
to#read.#
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Phonological!awareness!is!the!ability!to!recognize!phonemes/sounds!from!language,!
and!understand!that!speech!can!be!segmented!into!syllables/phonemic!units.!In!
children,!it!is!recognized!in!their!sensitivity!in!sound!structures!in!their!language!It!
can!be!tested!using!the!Comprehensive!Test!of!Phonological!Processing!where!they!
analyze!things!such!as!identifying!speech!sounds!in!words!and!non!words,!deleting!
sound!in!words!to!make!new!words,!repeating!strings!of!non@words,!rapidly!naming!
words,!repeating!sounds!in!reverse,!blending!individual!phonemes!to!construct!
words!and!non!words.!!
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Phonological!awareness!and!naming!speed!are!important!to!the!development!of!
word!reading.!Letter!to!sound!rules!(assign!sounds!to!individual!letters/groups!of!
letters,!blend!them!to!form!words)!and!alphabetic!strategy!depend!on!phonological!
awareness.!When!one!reads,!phonological!awareness!helps!in!consciously!
segmenting!words!into!phonemic!elements.!This!way,!the!child!can!sound!out!the!
word!and!recognize!it.!Children!in!phonics!program!are!asked!to!blend!sounds!
together!which!may!be!difficult!without!explicit!instructions.!Lack!of!phonological!
awareness!of!words!will!impede!word!attack!skills!leading!to!deficits!in!the!letter!to!
sound!rules!systems,!which!in!turn!will!impact!the!development!of!the!OIL!
(identifying!familiar!whole!words)!and!result!in!a!limited!sight!vocabulary!(words!
that!is!recognizable!within!one!second).!Therefore,!they!will!have!difficulties!in!
recognizing!strings!that!form!familiar!words.!These!children!also!have!difficulties!in!
recognizing!words!that!rhyme,!and!alliteration!in!words.!They!are!unable!to!use!the!
alphabetic!principle!needed!for!learning!phonics!and!decoding!words.!
!
Phonological!awareness!is!formed!during!preschool!and!important!to!assess!these!
abilities!before!children!are!taught!to!read!and!provide!training!for!children!who!
have!not!acquired!these!abilities.!Young!children!can!develop!phonological!
awareness!through!specific!instruction!and!such!teaching!has!a!positive!effect!on!
reading!achievement.!!These!include!phonic!systems!such!as!synthetic!phonics!
which!teach!students!isolated!letters!and!their!sound!equivalents,!then!teach!them!
to!blend!individual!phonemes!into!whole!words.!Analytic!phonics!teach!students!
whole!words!that!have!consistent!sound!spelling!patterns!and!teaches!them!to!
analyze!phoneme!elements!making!up!the!word.!!
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8.#Discuss#the#issues#involved#and#options#available#for#treating#individuals#
with#Attention#Deficit#Hyperactivity#Disorder#(ADHD).##
!
The!issue!involved!with!treating!individuals!with!ADHD!is!that!stimulant!medication!
is!not!enough!to!help.!They!must!be!engaged!in!a!multimodal!treatment!plan!
combining!several!approaches!such!as!effective!education,!behaviour!management!
strategies,!family/child!counselling,!home!management,!and!medication.!
Specifically,!things!such!as!cognitive!behaviour!modification!and!behaviour!
management!are!particularly!helpful.!!
!
Issues!that!arise!with!medication!are!that!it!is!individualized!for!each!child.!The!
most!ideal!medication!should!control!hyperactivity,!increase!attention!span,!reduce!
impulsive/aggressive!behaviour!without!inducing!side!effects!such!as!insomnia,!
drowsiness.!Finding!the!most!ideal!medication!is!difficult,!and!a!double!blind!trial!
must!also!be!done.!Psychostimulant!medication!such!as!Ritalin!and!Adderall!are!
prescribed!to!children!with!ADHD!as!they!reduce!hyperactivity!and!increasing!
alertness!of!the!central!nervous!system!by!stimulating!chemical!neurotransmitters.!
It!thus!increases!the!child’s!attention!span,!controls!impulsivity,!decreases!
distractibility!and!improves!visual!motor!integration.!However,!psychostimulant!
medication!has!a!tendency!to!wear!off!throughout!the!day!and!also!has!side!effects.!
They!also!might!have!a!rebound!effect!–!behaviour!may!deteriorate!in!late!afternoon!
after!medication!has!worn!off.!!
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Other!methods!include!teachers!trying!to!increase!the!student’s!attention!in!the!
classroom!by!employing!the!technique!where!they!get!students!to!increase!to!come!
to!attention,!focus!their!attention,!and!then!sustain!their!attention.!However,!this!
may!be!difficult!as!those!with!ADHD!are!distracted!by!external!stimuli!such!as!noises!
outside,!own!thoughts,!and!may!be!daydreaming.!Coming!to!attention!requires!
getting!the!students!alert.!Focusing!attention!requires!the!students!learning!to!
concentration!on!slowing!down,!reflect,!and!keep!track!of!their!responses!before!
answering.!Sustaining!attention!requires!them!to!focus!for!a!long!period!of!time!–!
which!may!take!weeks@months.!!
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Another!form!of!treatment!is!cognitive!behaviour!modification!where!children!are!
taught!to!orchestrate!their!subs!kills!better,!develop!skills!for!execute!functions,!and!
self!regulation.!Teachers!models!self!verbalization!and!self!reinforcement.!Teachers!
act!as!a!model!in!performing!a!task,!then!the!student!does!the!task!as!the!teacher!
provides!verbal!instructions.!Child!requests!to!repeat!the!task!while!verbalizing!
instructions!aloud,!and!then!whispers!it!the!next!time,!and!then!covertly!does!it.!The!
child!then!congratulates!themselves!(self!reinforcement)!when!the!task!is!complete.!
Self!regulation!includes!self!guidance,!verbal!cuing,!self!reinforcement.!CBM!leads!to!
some!improvement!–!gains!are!often!task!or!situation!specific!but!doesn’t!
spontaneously!transfer!to!other!tasks.!It!is!difficult!for!those!with!ADHD!and!the!
process!is!usually!long!and!time!consuming.!!
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