Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UW (20,000)
PSYCH (2,000)
Lecture 1

PSYCH312 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Literal And Figurative Language, Visual Perception, Critical Role


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Lecture
1

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 36 pages of the document.
Module'1:'
'
History'of'Learning'Disabilities'
'
Learning'Disability:'!"#$%&'#$'()*+',-'./%'01.#"$12'3&4#5"6-'!"77#..%%'"$'
/1$&#8199%&'8/#2&6%$'15'1'&#5"6&%6'#$'"$%'"6'7"6%'":'./%',15#8'95-8/"2";#812'
96"8%55%5'#$4"24%&'#$'<$&%65.1$&#$;'"6'#$'<5#$;'59"=%$'"6'>6#..%$'21$;<1;%?'@/%5%'
&#5"6&%65'71-',%'71$#:%5.%&'#$'2#5.%$#$;A'./#$=#$;A'.12=#$;A'6%1&#$;A'>6#.#$;A'59%22#$;'
"6'16#./7%.#8?'B.'125"'#$82<&%&'8"$&#.#"$5A'>/#8/'/1&',%%$'6%:%66%&'."'96%4#"<52-'15'
9%68%9.<12'/1$&#8195A'7#$#712',61#$'&-5:<$8.#"$A'&-52%C#1A'%.8?'B.'&#&'$".'#$82<&%'
96",2%75'96#716#2-'&<%'."'4#5<12A'/%16#$;A'"6'7"."6'/1$&#8195A'"6'."'7%$.12'
6%.16&1.#"$A'%7".#"$12'&#5.<6,1$8%A'"6'%$4#6"$7%$.12'&#51&41$.1;%''
'
Public'Law'94<142:'@/%':#65.'9<,2#8'21>'9155%&'#$'()DD'#$'./%'EF'1$&'2%16$#$;'
&#51,#2#.-'&%:#$#.#"$'#5'9<.'#$."'21>?'B$'"6&%6':"6'1'8/#2&'."',%'21,%2%&'2%16$#$;'
&#51,2%&'./%-'/1&'."'7%%.'8%6.1#$'86#.%6#1?'B.'5.#9<21.%&'./1.',%:"6%'1'8/#2&'8"<2&',%'
51#&'."'/14%'1'2%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.-'"6'2%16$#$;'&#51,2%&A'8%6.1#$'86#.%6#1'/1&'."',%'7%.G'
H (?'!/#2&'8"<2&',%'51#&'."'/14%'1'2%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.-'#:'5/%'&#&'$".'18/#%4%'#$'58/""2'
8"77%$5<61.%'>#./'/#5I/%6'1;%'1$&'1,#2#.-'>/%$'96"4#&%&'>#./'<5<12'
1996"96#1.%'2%16$#$;'%C9%6#%$8%5'
H J?'!/#2&'%C/#,#.%&'1'5%4%6%'&#586%91$8-',%.>%%$'18/#%4%7%$.'1$&'#$.%22%8.<12'
1,#2#.-'#$'"$%'"6'7"6%'":'./%':"22">#$;'16%15K'
o "612'%C96%55#"$'
o 2#5.%$#$;'8"796%/%$5#"$'
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o 71./%71.#85'8128<21.#"$'
o 71./%71.#85'6%15"$#$;'
Criticisms'":'./#5'L<,2#8'M1>'#$82<&%&G'
(?'821<5%'./1.'1'2%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.-'8"<2&'$".'N"#$.2-'"88<6'>#./'"./%6'/1$&#8195'"6'
>#./'8<2.<612'"6'%8"$"7#8'&#51&41$.1;%5'
o %?;?'./%6%O5'6%5%168/',%.>%%$'712$<.6#.#"$'1$&'2%16$#$;'
o &#51,#2#.#%5'"88<6'#$'#79"4%6#5/%&'/"7%5'>/%6%'./%-'&"$O.'/14%'
,121$8%&'$<.6#.#"<5'&#%.5'
J?'./%'&%:#$#.#"$'":'2%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.-'/15',%%$'",58<6%&',-'1'2#5.'":'8"$&#.#"$5'
o %?;?'9%68%9.<12'/1$&#8195A'&-52%C#1A'%.8?''
P?'./%'21>'&"%5'$".'71=%'96"4#5#"$5':"6'1&"2%58%$.5'1$&'1&<2.5'
Q?'L/615%5'2#=%'R%C/#,#.'1'&#5"6&%6'#$'"$%'"6'7"6%'":',15#8'95-8/"2";#812'96"8%55%5S'
81<5%&'8"$8%6$'
o 4%6-'2#..2%'1;6%%7%$.'"$'>/1.',15#8'95-8/"2";#812'96"8%55%5'7#;/.',%'
'
Various'Aptitude'and'Achievement'Scores''
Age'Equivalent'Scores'(AE):'@/%'3T'#$&#81.%5'./%'2%4%2'":';6">./'"6'&%4%2"97%$.'1'
8/#2&'/15'6%18/%&?'U"6'#$5.1$8%A'>/%6%'./%'7%$.12'1;%'%V<#412%$.'":'D'/15'1..1#$%&'

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

&%;6%%'":'#$.%22%8.<12'&%4%2"97%$.'%V<#412%$.'."'D'-%165'"2&?'@"'155#;$'./#5'58"6%A'
"$%'7<5.'/14%'96#"6'=$">2%&;%'":'>/1.'#5'.-9#812'":'#$&#4#&<125'":'&#::%6%$.'1;%5?'
@/#5'=$">2%&;%'#5'",.1#$%&',-';#4#$;'.%5.5'."'216;%'6%96%5%$.1.#4%'51792%5'>/"'
58"6%5'96"4#&%&'./%'5.1$&16&5'"6'$"675':"6'19.#.<&%'"6'18/#%4%7%$.'W'5.1$&16&5'."'
>/#8/'%4%6-"$%'#5'8"7916%&?'X">%4%6A',%81<5%'#.'#5'1$'"6&#$12'58"6%A'81$O.'.%22'/">'
5%4%6%'1'&#586%91$8-'71-',%'Y/">'7<8/'>"65%'"6',%..%6'5"7%"$%'#5Z'
'
Grade'Equivalent'Scores'(GE):'@/%'[T'#$&#81.%5'./%'2%4%2'":';6">./'"6'
&%4%2"97%$.'1'8/#2&'/15'6%18/%&?'U"6'#$5.1$8%A'>/%6%'./%';61&%'%V<#412%$.'":'D'#$'
6%1&#$;'#$&#81.%5'8/#2&'/15'1..1#$%&'1'2%4%2'":'5=#225'%V<#412%$.'."'./1.'":'"$%'#$';61&%'
D?'@"'155#;$'./#5'58"6%A'"$%'7<5.'/14%'96#"6'=$">2%&;%'":'>/1.'#5'.-9#812'":'
#$&#4#&<125'":'&#::%6%$.';61&%5?'@/#5'=$">2%&;%'#5'",.1#$%&',-';#4#$;'.%5.5'."'216;%'
6%96%5%$.1.#4%'51792%5'>/"5%'58"6%5'96"4#&%&'./%'5.1$&16&5'"6'$"675':"6'19.#.<&%'
"6'18/#%4%7%$.'W'5.1$&16&5'."'>/#8/'%4%6-"$%'#5'8"7916%&?'X">%4%6A',%81<5%'#.'#5'
1$'"6&#$12'58"6%A'81$O.'.%22'/">'5%4%6%'1'&#586%91$8-'71-',%'Y/">'7<8/'>"65%'"6'
,%..%6'5"7%"$%'#5Z'
'
Percentile'Ranks'(PR):'@/%'L\'#$&#81.%5'./%'9%68%$.'":'1'$"671.#4%'"6'
5.1$&16&#]1.#"$';6"<9',%2">'1$'#$&#4#&<12O5'L\'58"6%?'U"6'#$5.1$8%A'1'9%68%$.#2%'
61$='":'J^'7%1$5'./1.'1$'#$&#4#&<12'58"6%'%C8%%&%&'"6'>15',%..%6'./1$'J^_'":'./%'
58"6%5'":'./"5%'#$'1'$"671.#4%'51792%?'L\'":'D^'7%1$5'1$'#$&#4#&<12'58"6%'%C8%%&'
D^_'":'./"5%'#$'$"671.#4%'51792%?'X">%4%6A',%81<5%'#.'#5'1$'"6&#$12'58"6%A'81$O.'.%22'
/">'5%4%6%'1'&#586%91$8-'71-',%'Y/">'7<8/'>"65%'"6',%..%6'5"7%"$%'#5Z''
'
Standard'Scores:'`"6%'96%8#5%'15'#.'#$&#81.%5'./%'$<7,%6'":'5.1$&16&'<$#.5'1,"4%'
"6',%2">'./%'7%1$'./1.'1$'#$&#4#&<125'58"6%'#5?'@/%'FF'<5%5'./%'Fa'":'./%'&#5.6#,<.#"$'
":'58"6%5'16"<$&'./%'7%1$'."'5/">'/">':16'1$'#$&#4#&<12O5'58"6%'&#::%65':6"7'./%'
7%1$?'B$5.%1&'":'<5#$;'61>'58"6%5A'81$'6%9"6.'58"6%5'#$'.%675'":'$<7,%6'":'Fa':6"7'
./%'7%1$'"6'#$'b'58"6%5?'`"5.'95-8/"2";#812'.%5.5'<5%'FF'>#./'7%1$5'":'(cc'1$&'Fa'":'
(^'>/#8/'#5'./%'517%'7%1$#$;'15'1'b'58"6%'":'d(?'''
'
Severe'Discrepancy'between'Aptitude'and'Achievement:'`"5.'N<6#5&#8.#"$5'
96%:%6'."'<5%'FF'#$'8"79<.#$;'19.#.<&%'18/#%4%7%$.'&#586%91$8#%5'1$&'<5%'1'
&#::%6%$8%'":'J'Fa',%.>%%$'19.#.<&%'1$&'18/#%4%7%$.'15'#$&#81.#$;'./%'96%5%$8%'":'1'
5%4%6%'&#586%91$8-?'U"6'#$5.1$8%A'#:'1'8/#2&'6%8%#4%&'1'FF'":'((c'"$'.%5.5'":'19.#.<&%'
Y#$.%22#;%$8%ZA'./%-'>"<2&'/14%'."'%16$'1'FF'":'+c'"6'2%55':"6'&#::%6%$8%'."'V<12#:-'15'1'
5%4%6%'&#586%91$8-?''
'
Reliability'of'Difference'Scores:'355"8#1.%&'>#./'%18/'.%5.'58"6%'#5'1'7%15<6%'":'
6%2#1,#2#.-?'\%2#1,#2#.-'":'&#::%6%$8%'58"6%5'#5'8"79<.%&',-'5<,.618.#$;'"$%'58"6%':6"7'
1$"./%6?'\%2#1,#2#.-'":'&#::%6%$8%'58"6%5'#5'8"$5#&%61,2-'2%55'./1$'6%2#1,#2#.-'":'
#$&#4#&<12'58"6%5'#$."'8"79<.1.#"$?'@/#5':18."6'5/"<2&',%'8"$5#&%6%&'>/%$'&%8#&#$;'
#:'3L@H3!X@'&#::%6%$8%'#5'5%4%6%?''
'
'

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

IDEA'2004,'2006:'388"6&#$;'."'BaT3'YB$&#4#&<125'>#./'&#51,#2#.#%5'%&<81.#"$'
#796"4%7%$.'18.Z'JccQIJcc*A'./%'21.%5.'6%4#5#"$'":'./%'"6#;#$12'9<,2#8'M1>')QH(QJA'
>/#2%'1'5%4%6%'&#586%91$8-',%.>%%$'3L@'1$&'3!X'8"<2&',%'#$82<&%&'15'%4#&%$8%':"6'
1'2%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.-A'./%'18.'59%8#:#8122-'5.1.%5'#&%$.#:#81.#"$'":'1'Ma'7<5.'$".'6%V<#6%'
1'&%7"$5.61.#"$'":'1'5%4%6%'&#586%91$8-',%.>%%$'3L@'1$&'38/?''
'
Response'to'Intervention'(RTI):'\@B'>15'%7%6;%&'15'96"8%&<6%'."'#&%$.#:-'1'
2%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.-?'E$&%6'\@BA'8/#2&6%$'15'%162-'15';61&%'('"6'%162#%6A'%$8"<$.%6#$;'
&#::#8<2.-'#$'58/""2A'16%'96"4#&%&'>#./'./%'best'evidence,'age'appropriate'
#$5.6<8.#"$5'412#&1.%&'./6"<;/'58#%$.#:#8'6%5%168/?'!/#2&6%$'>/"'&"$O.'6%59"$&'
."I,%$%:#.':6"7'5<8/'#$5.6<8.#"$'71-'./%$',%'82155#:#%&'15'Ma'1$&'6%:%66%&':"6'
59%8#12'%&<81.#"$'5%64#8%5',<.'"$2-'1:.%6'1'8"796%/%$5#4%'155%557%$.?'B.'71-',%'
5%4%612'-%165',%:"6%'%::%8.#4%$%55'":'\@B'#$'#&%$.#:-#$;'1$&'.6%1.#$;'Ma'81$',%'
%412<1.%&'15'&#::'%&<81.#"$12'N<6#5&#8.#"$5'<5%'&#::'#$5.6<8.#"$12'#$5.6<8.#"$5?'B.O5'.""'
5""$'."'&%.%67#$%'#:'\@B'#&%$.#:#%5'./%'517%'"6'&#::%6%$.'8/#2&'15'Ma'15'./"5%'
#&%$.#:#%&'<5#$;'"2&'3L@H3!X'&#586%91$8-?'F"7%'/14%'16;<%&'\@B'1996"18/'71-'
5#792-'9"5.9"$%'8166-#$;'"<.'1'8"796%/%$5#4%'155%557%$.?''
'
LDAO'definition'of'LD:'@/%'M%16$#$;'&#51,#2#.#%5'155"8#1.#"$'":'e$.16#"'YMa3eZ'
&%:#$#.#"$'":'Ma':"8<5%5'"$'$".'6%5.6#8.#$;'#.5%2:'."';2",12'&#586%91$8#%5',%.>%%$'3L@'
1$&'3!X?'B$5.%1&':"8<5%5'"$'#791#67%$.5'#$'('"6'7"6%'95-8/"2";#812'96"8%55%5'
6%21.%&'."'2%16$#$;'#$'8"7,#$1.#"$'>#./'"./%6>#5%'14%61;%'./#$=#$;I6%15"$#$;'5=#225?'
325"':"8<5%5'"$'<$%C9%8.%&'2">'181&%7#8'18/#%4%7%$.'1$&'14%61;%I1,"4%'14%61;%'
18/#%4%7%$.'1..1#$%&',-'1'8/#2&'"$2-'1.'./%'%C9%$5%'":'<$6%12#5.#8122-'/#;/'2%4%25'":'
%::"6.'"6'#$.%$5#4%'%&<81.#"$12'5<99"6.'."';%.'8/#2&'1.'./1.'2%4%2?'F"7%'":'./%'
95-8/"2";#812'96"8%55%5'./1.'71-',%'#791#6%&'#$'1'8/#2&'>#./'1'Ma'188"6&#$;'."'
Ma3e'#$82<&%'9/"$"2";#812'96"8%55#$;A'7%7"6-'1$&'1..%$.#"$'5<8/'15'f@`A'@`A'
6%.6#%412A'%C%8<.#4%':<$8.#"$#$;A'%.8?''
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