PSYCH352 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Extraversion And Introversion, Trait Theory, Collectivism

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There are aspects of self-concept that are universal and some that are culturally variable. Such differences have important implications for our social interactions and perceptions of them. Something as basic as how we view ourselves differs greatly across cultures. Americans (and interestingly, kenyan undergrads) describe themselves in terms of enduring traits and personal characteristics: characterizes findings in many western countries. Non-student populations in kenya however, describe themselves in terms of roles and relationships: characterizes findings in much of the non-western world. Researchers have suggested the existence of a fundamental difference in how the self is subjectively organized. Markus and kitayama (1991) argue that this difference is based on people having either an independent or interdependent view of self. Independent view of self: a model of the self in which identity is thought to come from inner attributes that reflect a unique essence of the individual and that remain stable across situations and across the lifespan.

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