Class Notes (906,063)
CA (538,595)
UW (19,388)
PSYCH (2,104)
PSYCH481 (22)
Lecture

psych

14 Pages
108 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH481
Professor
Uzma Rehman

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 14 pages of the document.
Chapter 5: Learning and Behaviour
Learning – an adpative process in which the tendency to perform particular
behaviour is changed by experience
as conditions change we learn new behaviours and eliminate old ones
learning can only be observed through behaviour, but some behaviour is not
a result of learning, and some learning doesnt produce a change is
behaviour
experience alters chemistry of brain – these alterations affect how NS responds
to subsequent events
Performance – behavioural change produced by internal changes brought
about by learning (evidence that learning has occured)
factors such as fatigue and motivation can affect behaviour so psychologists
also look for specific aspects of performance such as durability and specifity
three types of learning: habituation, classical conditioning, operant
conditioning
all involve cause and effect relationships with environment and behaviour
learn which stimuli are trivial and which are important; learn to make adaptive
responses and to avoid maladaptive ones; learn to recognize conditions that
reponse would be useful or if more appropriate reponse exists
these types of learning are building blocks for complex behaviours
Habituation:
we react automatically to events:
orienting response – organism directs appropriate sensory organ toward
source of novel stimulus
habituation – simplest form of learning: learning not to respond to an
unimportant event that occurs repeatedly
George Humphrey – experiment with snails, got used to tapping so wouldnt
retreat into shell
from evolutionary perspective – waste of time and energy
Wicks and Rankin – used worm Nemoda and subjected them to taps or heat
found that this withdrawing effect occurs through neurons that respond to
mechanical stimulus, regardless of stimulus
could produce habituation to tap-elicited stimulus but not to heat – shows
they learned something about tap and could distinguish it from reaction to
source of heat
only had 302 neurons in NS
short term habituation – simplest form
long term habituation animals with more complex nervous system
pattern of experience plays a role in distinguishing long-term and short-term:
when sitmuli are massed into quick repetitions, habituation is rapid but ST
when sitmuli are presented in small groups that are spaced over time,
habituation is slower but LT
evidence that 2 different neural mechanisms are responsible for this
Classical Conditioning:
invovled learning about conditions that predict that a significant event will
occur
Pavlov – noticed dogs salivated when they saw research assistant come into
room so he set up experiment with bell and food and dogs learned to salivate
when they heard bell ring
Classical Conditioning – process by which a response normally elicitied by
one stimulus (UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (CS) as well
sequence and timing is important
unconditional stimulus – stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response
unconditional response - behaviour itself that is naturally elicited by UCS
conditional stimulus – stimulus that, because of repeated association with
UCS, eventually elicits conditional response
conditional response – response elicited by CR
Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning:
two funcitons:
ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predicts occurence of an important
event allows learner to make appropriate response faster and more
effectively
siamese fighting fish more likely to win fight if they were given stimulus
(CS) that intruding male (UCS) would enter territory
blue gouramis more likely to mate sooner and produce more offspring
when they received stimulus (CS) signalling approaching female (UCS)
learning that occurs with biologically significant UCS is more resistant to
subsequent modifications
stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some properties of
important stimuli with which they have been associated and thus become
able to modify behaviour
neutral stimulus becomes desirable when it is associated with desirable
stimulus or becomes undesirable when it is associated with undesirable
stimulus
specific properties of UCS become associated with CS - UCS takes on
symbolic value
Ward-Robinson – demonstrated this with pigeons where they pecked at
light when sound went on (paired sound CS with food UCS)
adaptive significance is so general that even nematode exhibits it
Wen – placed worms in solution of Na+ or Cl- with bacteria; when placed with
patches on ions and no bacteria, worm migrated to ions thinking there was
food
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning:
discovered 7 interesting phenomena: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, stimulus generalization, and discrimination
Acquisition:
acquisition – time during wich CR appears and increases in frequency
strength of CR is influenced by: intesity of UCS and timing of CS and UCS
more intense UCS produces rapid learning
more intense UCS stronger the CR is
classical conditioning occurs fastest when CS occurs shorlty before UCS and
both end at same time
0.5 seconds is optimal delay between onset of CS and UCS
little conditioning if CS follows UCS, or if too long or short delay will be
slower and weaker
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery:
extinction – elimination of a response that occurs when CS is repeatedly
presented without being followed by UCS
participant learns that CS is no longer followed by UCS – if neither are
presented then extinction doesn't occur
doesn't necessarily disappear permanently
spontaneous recovery – after an interval of time, reappearance of response
that had previously extinguished
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination:
generalization – CR elicited by stimuli that resembles CS used in training
once response has been conditioned to CS similar stimuli will also elicit that
response
more stimuli resembles CS more likely it will elicit CR
discrimination – appearance of CR when one stimulus is presented (CR+) but
not another one (CR-) accomplished by using 2 CS during training – one is
followed by the UCS and another isn't
involes learning difference between 2 or more stimuli
Conditioned Emotional Responses:
many stimuli are able to arouse emotional response (disgust, contempt, fear,
anger, sadness, tenderness, longing, or sexual desire)
many had no special signifance but were paired with stimuli that elicited strong
emotional reaction so they acquired emotional or evaluative signifance
Todrank, Byrnes, Wrzesniewski, and Rozin – people associated pleasant
or unpleasant odour with attractive or unactriveness of person in photograph
phobias – unreasonable fear of specific onjects or situations learned through
classical learning
at some time early in life person was exposed to now-fearsome object in
conjunction with stimulus that elicited pain or fear
classical conditioning can occur without direct experience with CS or UCS –
can be learned through observation (vicariously)
imaginary episodes that we picture as we hear or read story (UCS) can
provide imaginary stimuli (CS) that lead to real conditional emotional
responses (CR)
therapists use knowledge of principles of learning to eliminate them
suggestions that biologically relevant stimuli are especially prone to
classically conditioned emotional responses
What is learned in Classical Conditioning:
research shows that for classical conditioning to occur, CS must be reliable
predictor of UCS
neutral stimulus becomes a CS only when following conditions are satisfied:
CS regularly occurs prior to presentation of UCS
CS does not regularly occur when UCS is absent
principle has been clearly established by conditioning phenomenon known as

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 5: Learning and Behaviour Learning an adpative process in which the tendency to perform particular behaviour is changed by experience as conditions change we learn new behaviours and eliminate old ones learning can only be observed through behaviour, but some behaviour is not a result of learning, and some learning doesnt produce a change is behaviour experience alters chemistry of brain these alterations affect how NS responds to subsequent events Performance behavioural change produced by internal changes brought about by learning (evidence that learning has occured) factors such as fatigue and motivation can affect behaviour so psychologists also look for specific aspects of performance such as durability and specifity three types of learning: habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning all involve cause and effect relationships with environment and behaviour learn which stimuli are trivial and which are important; learn to make adaptive responses and to avoid maladaptive ones; learn to recognize conditions that reponse would be useful or if more appropriate reponse exists these types of learning are building blocks for complex behaviours Habituation: we react automatically to events: orienting response organism directs appropriate sensory organ toward source of novel stimulus habituation simplest form of learning: learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly George Humphrey experiment with snails, got used to tapping so wouldnt retreat into shell from evolutionary perspective waste of time and energy Wicks and Rankin used worm Nemoda and subjected them to taps or heat found that this withdrawing effect occurs through neurons that respond to mechanical stimulus, regardless of stimulus could produce habituation to tap-elicited stimulus but not to heat shows they learned something about tap and could distinguish it from reaction to source of heat only had 302 neurons in NS short term habituation simplest form long term habituation animals with more complex nervous system pattern of experience plays a role in distinguishing long-term and short-term: when sitmuli are massed into quick repetitions, habituation is rapid but ST when sitmuli are presented in small groups that are spaced over time, habituation is slower but LT evidence that 2 different neural mechanisms are responsible for this Classical Conditioning: invovled learning about conditions that predict that a significant event will occur Pavlov noticed dogs salivated when they saw research assistant come into room so he set up experiment with bell and food and dogs learned to salivate when they heard bell ring Classical Conditioning process by which a response normally elicitied by one stimulus (UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (CS) as well sequence and timing is important unconditional stimulus stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response unconditional response - behaviour itself that is naturally elicited by UCS conditional stimulus stimulus that, because of repeated association with UCS, eventually elicits conditional response conditional response response elicited by CR Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning: two funcitons: ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predicts occurence of an important event allows learner to make appropriate response faster and more effectively siamese fighting fish more likely to win fight if they were given stimulus (CS) that intruding male (UCS) would enter territory blue gouramis more likely to mate sooner and produce more offspring when they received stimulus (CS) signalling approaching female (UCS) learning that occurs with biologically significant UCS is more resistant to subsequent modifications stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some properties of important stimuli with which they have been associated and thus become able to modify behaviour neutral stimulus becomes desirable when it is associated with desirable stimulus or becomes undesirable when it is associated with undesirable stimulus specific properties of UCS become associated with CS - UCS takes on symbolic value Ward-Robinson demonstrated this with pigeons where they pecked at light when sound went on (paired sound CS with food UCS) adaptive significance is so general that even nematode exhibits it Wen placed worms in solution of Na+ or Cl- with bacteria; when placed with patches on ions and no bacteria, worm migrated to ions thinking there was food Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning: discovered 7 interesting phenomena: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, and discrimination Acquisition: acquisition time during wich CR appears and increases in frequency strength of CR is influenced by: intesity of UCS and timing of CS and UCS more intense UCS produces rapid learning more intense UCS stronger the CR is classical conditioning occurs fastest when CS occurs shorlty before UCS and both end at same time 0.5 seconds is optimal delay between onset of CS and UCS little conditioning if CS follows UCS, or if too long or short delay will be slower and weaker Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery: extinction elimination of a response that occurs when CS is repeatedly presented without being followed by UCS participant learns that CS is no longer followed by UCS if neither are presented then extinction doesn't occur doesn't necessarily disappear permanently spontaneous recovery after an interval of time, reappearance of response that had previously extinguished Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination: generalization CR elicited by stimuli that resembles CS used in training once response has been conditioned to CS similar stimuli will also elicit that response more stimuli resembles CS more likely it will elicit CR discrimination appearance of CR when one stimulus is presented (CR+) but not another one (CR-) accomplished by using 2 CS during training one is followed by the UCS and another isn't involes learning difference between 2 or more stimuli Conditioned Emotional Responses: many stimuli are able to arouse emotional response (disgust, contempt, fear, anger, sadness, tenderness, longing, or sexual desire) many had no special signifance but were paired with stimuli that elicited strong emotional reaction so they acquired emotional or evaluative signifance Todrank, Byrnes, Wrzesniewski, and Rozin people associated pleasant or unpleasant odour with attractive or unactriveness of person in photograph phobias unreasonable fear of specific onjects or situations learned through classical learning at some time early in life person was exposed to now-fearsome object in conjunction with stimulus that elicited pain or fear classical conditioning can occur without direct experience with CS or UCS can be learned through observation (vicariously) imaginary episodes that we picture as we hear or read story (UCS) can provide imaginary stimuli (CS) that lead to real conditional emotional responses (CR) therapists use knowledge of principles of learning to eliminate them suggestions that biologically relevant stimuli are especially prone to classically conditioned emotional responses What is learned in Classical Conditioning: research shows that for classical conditioning to occur, CS must be reliable predictor of UCS neutral stimulus becomes a CS only when following conditions are satisfied: CS regularly occurs prior to presentation of UCS CS does not regularly occur when UCS is absent principle has been clearly established by conditioning phenomenon known as
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit