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Lecture 5

Rec 100: Lecture 5 - Multicultural Complete Notes

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Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 100
Diana Parry

Recreation and Leisure Studies 100: Multiculturalism Who am I? Leisure behaviour (football player, etc.) Social class (working class family, etc.) Gender (male/female) Race/ethnicity (asian, African American, etc.) Understanding Terms Race versus ethnicity  Race: Physical characteristics (skin colour, hair colour, eyes, etc.)  Ethnicity: cultural traditions/characteristics (language, value systems, religion, etc.) “Racialized ethnicity” (Omi & Winant, 1994)  When referring to people by both race AND ethnicity (the two overlap) o Ex. “you’re Chinese” “Visible minority group” (Employment Equity Act S.C. 1995, c. 44 (section 3))  Persons other than Aboriginal people or indigenous people that are non-Caucasian in race, or non- white in colour Demographic Trends: Region of Waterloo and Canada In 2006, 14% of K-W was made up of visible minorities Projection for 2031 is 28% (projected to double) 31% of Canada’s population is predicted to be made up of visible minorities Predicted that over 70% of visible minorities will be living in urban centres (Toronto, Montreal, or Vancouver)  What is the impact on leisure??  Right now, the impact is uncertain o Can begin to answer the impact of leisure by looking at the different models of cultural change Models of Cultural Change Anglo-conformity  When ethnic and racial divisions are shed, and visual minority groups are expected to conform to dominant majority o Not a popular model of cultural change o When groups come in and are expected to leave all of their divisions behind them to conform to new cultures Melting pot  When ethnic and racial divisions are shed, and a new culture is created that is unique to this new group of people o Most often used to describe the US  Multiculturalism/Cultural Pluralism  When people move into a new place and their diversity is respected and accommodated o Freedom of choice (able to be whoever you want to be) o Most often used to describe Canada Selective acculturation  When people move into a new place and they maintain their ethnic traditions very strongly o They learn just enough to live in their new place in a new place to survive Leisure Expressiveness and Ethnic Consciousness Leisure can be an important social space for traditional cultural values Leisure can play a critical role in the persistence of ethnic-group identity, despite powerful trends toward Anglo conformity in the workplace, at school, etc.  Leisure is an important space for people to maintain their homeland traditions/values/culture  Presumably, in our leisure we are more free (to speak whatever language, whatever activity, connect with the people we choose to connect; we are intrinsically motivated to do this) Methodological Issues Emotionally laden concepts  For both researcher and those participating in the research  It makes some people uncomfortable (and can be challenging to study) Moral and ethical concerns - use and abuse  Groups that have really been over-researched  Researches haven’t done a good job of treating communities with respect and getting back to them and getting their input Can dominant groups comprehend the experiences of outsiders (White scholars doing research on race?)  Many scholars have been white o Whether or not they can really appreciate the experiences of visual minority groups Ethnographies of the imagined, the imaginary and the critically real: blackness, whiteness, the north of England and rugby league (Spracklen, Timmins, & Long, 2010) Three authors discuss how race has impacted their research in the area of rugby culture and masculinity White researchers: black players were mistrustful and hesitant to talk about issues of racism and their concerns Own “insider” perspective vs. “outsiders” experiences  Black researcher: As a well-known rugby player had access to predominantly white clubs etc.. but talking about racism was still problematic Found his race and background to be factors he could utilize in different ways  This is an emotionally laden situations Ugly on the Diamonds: An Examination of White Privilege in Youth Baseball (Glover, 2007) Explored the experiences of adults/kids involved in ‘First String’, a co-ed youth baseball league in the US for African American children Confronted the complexity involved in being ‘both a recipient of, yet advocate against, white privilege’ with the: “explicit intent to encourage other scholars to take up the challenge of exposing white privilege in leisure practice and policy.” (Glover, 2007, pg. 201) Origins of Canadian Research Malpass (1973) and the “total community”  In order to understand this area, we need to research the total community (including ethnic and racial minorities (VMG)) Recreational services failed to address cultural differences (1984 Ministry of Recreation and Tourism) Significance of early research  Wake-up call to researchers to acknowledge that we are not understanding our cultural mosaic Leisure, Place, and Identity: The Experiences of Ethnic Minority Youth (Tirone & Pedlar, 2005) Leisure allowed second-generation South-Asian-Canadian youth to enter and exit three different communities with relative ease: Home/family/community (people they knew from their homeland) Dominant cultural spaces (leisure that occurred within their dominant group; with school friends) Diverse leisure spaces (leisure experiences with other visual minority groups)  Leisure activities such as sports, music, etc. Access to the three communities offered the youth opportunities to learn customs, experiment with social roles, and experience both independence and support/acceptance. The Role of Leisure for Chinese Immigrants Living in the Greater Toronto Area (Ng, 2011) Older adult immigrants from China (ages 50-65) Explored their leisure experiences and the meaning they attached to those experiences  How their leisure experiences impacted their lives and the meaning they attached to those experiences Findings: Changing leisure with changing culture Achieving and maintaining health essential to experiencing freedom and choice essential for cultural expression and learning Feeling a sense of community (despite being new to Canada) Overall: leisure is an essential component of life  Leisure was a site for cultural expression (a place where they could speak their own language, follow their own traditions, etc.) and the development of an ethnic community within Canada  Leisure was also a way for them to access what they called “Canadian culture”  Leisure was a really essential component of their life while living in Canada Two Types of Discrimination  35% of new Canadians say they experienced some form of experience in the past 5 years o Dond’t know what % occurs during their leisure time Perceived Discrimination South Asian teenagers (Ti
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