Constraints of leisure:
-prevents you from fully participating
Three important functions
Phenomenon largely overlooked until the 1980s
-shed light on new leisure behaviour, such as motivation, level of satisfaction
-increases communication between scholars
Barriers: is too limiting need a broader one
-fails to capture the range of explanations
-focused on one type of constraint(once ppl have a preference, focuses on one con-
-recreation vs. leisure
-recognition of impact of constraints beyond participation.
Definition of constraint
-keep this in mind
Broadening the range
variables are used by researchers in order to study constraints, we look at what level
they are participating in
-look at people who have stopped leisure...why?
-talks to people who are not enjoying their leisure
it has taught us that researchers need to be careful about how the way they define and
conceptualize constraints, and they must be careful when they choose the criteria vari-
able, and the impact of the one, or multiple ones. Inaccurate assumptions:
a)there are situations while people can be constrained even before an activity prefer-
b)if someone is constrained they do not participate, but they do...
c)those who participate must not be constrained...yeah no
What are some constraints you face in your own time?
-would rather do it with a friend
-skills and ability
-lack of family
Types of constraints:
Structural: factors that intervene once you have developed a preference for an activity
and they prevent you from participating in that activity. Examples: Time and Money
Intrapersonal: constraints that are within an individual. Examples: Confidence and fear.
Interpersonal: between groups -A lack of people with whom to participate. Examples: no
friends, and or family support
++Structural constraints are more likely to be impacted than intra and inter personal
Age: Constraints Goes up and down with age
Skill: Increases with age
Facilities: Mostly neutral with time Isolation: A U shape, when people in their 30-50s are least constrained that way.
Commitments: people in their 30-50s are more constrained.
-most of us negotiate constraints
People who do not participate: (Passive Responders)
People who, despite constraints, do not reduce or change participation at all: (Achiev-
People who participate but in an altered manner: (Attempters)
How do u negotiate leisure constraints?
Does the negotiation of the constraint differ depending on the activity and type of con-
straint? if so how?
What is a critique of the typology?
• The language she uses
• Attempter vs. Achiever
Examples of Research
• “You c