RS100 Lecture #3
Last lecture for Hinduism!
Islam reached India in the seventh century:
Wasn’t until In the twelfth century Islam made territorial conquests in North India.
Region ruled by Turko-Afghan Muslim dynasties.
In the 16th c., the Mughal ruler, Babar, won a decisive battle in Dehli extending Islam into
Akbar, another Mughal ruler, conquered and united large portions of South and North India.
Until modern period. Islam, thousand years. It was during this time that syncretic traditions
such as Sikhism emerged.
Mughal power fell to the British in the 18th c. who ruled until independence in 1947:
Brahmo Samaj, founded by Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833).
Brahmo Samaj promoted monotheistic values found in both the Upanishads(later part of
Vedas) and Christianity and aimed to abolish the practices of sati (陪葬, honorable to do
so)and child marriage.
Mahatma Gandhi fought relentlessly for the fair treatment of Indians by the British, Indian
independence, ahimsa (non-violence), and religious tolerance.
Gandhi, also educate in western. Modern Hindu perform
The most important feature of modern Hinduism to reach beyond Asia is yoga:
Misunderstand, in fact that Yoga has little to do with posture.
Posture and breathing is minor part of Yoga
Swami Vivekananda (religious teacher) attended the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago
eastern religious thinkers first time be listened.
Spearheaded Western interest in Hindu mythology and Vedanta philosophy.
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, guru to The Beatles. Beatles interested in Hinduism.
Transcendental Meditation requires students to repeat a mantra (specific part in
Vedas,passed down to people for many years, )twice daily for a twenty-minute period, which
is believed to bring tranquility.
ISKCON (the International Society for Krishna Consciousness) founded by Swami
Bhaktivedanta in 1966:
Members of the Hare Krishna movement publicly dance, clash small cymbals, and
continuously chant (japa) a mantra containing the sixteen names of Vishnu as a form of
The movement:Accept people outside from their Caste, lower caste could also join.
This practice, along with the traditional garb of Hindu monks including shaved heads and
saffron colored robes, has made them a highly visible group.
Accepts those born outside of the Hindu caste system and gives them Hindu names.
Samsara: cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
realm. If not accumulate Karma, might have good fortune. Hindu better than others =0=
Karma: moral principle of action and causality.
stays with you for thousands of years! Complex situation on all the action people undertaking.
All actions sow karmic seeds. Actions are judged as either good or evil, based on the kinds of
karmic fruit they bear.
different have different dharma, different fate, same action may have different Karma
(soldier killing and servant killing)
The ultimate goal within Hinduism is not to be reborn in heaven, but to be released from
samsara and the effects of karma.
Karma is all bad. Good or less good. Good or evil does not even exist, just illusion.
Knowledge of Atman (the true Self) and Brahman (Absolute Reality) produces moksha
(liberation) from the bondage of samsara and karma.
Self, soul. Deities are not separate from Samsara. God could die and reborn. Could be every
realms. Generally in heaven realms.
Western: god at top, human at middle. Hindu: god also in Samsara, should concern about
Human could become deity. Once realize your soul, unite with Brahman, release from Samsara.
There are many yogas (paths) to moksha(liberation, release from Samsara).
Yoga means “yoke” or “union” and can be thought of as uniting one’s Atman (Self) with
Brahman (Absolute Reality).
Hindus believe that everything, including the gods, are parts of a greater whole, a vast singular
power called Brahman. Realize fully and completely. We