Class Notes (835,929)
Canada (509,507)
RS 110 (46)
Lecture

Classical Periods Dynasties, Islamic Theology, Philosophy and Law

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Department
Religious Studies
Course
RS 110
Professor
Peter Frick
Semester
Fall

Description
RS  110  –  101:  Lecture  17   Classical  Periods  (661 -­1258)   Tuesday,  November  23,  2010     -­‐ Following  the  period  of  the  caliphate,  the  classical  period  of  Islam  begins  with  the  Umayyad   Dynasty  in  661  and  lasted  to  1258  when  the  Mongols  destroyed  Baghdad   -­‐ Those  regions  that  were  under  the  con trol  of  Muslims  were  called  the  Dar  al -­‐Islam,  “abode   of  Islam”  and  those  that  were  not  the  unbelievers  were  called  Dar  al -­‐Halab     Umayyad  Dynasty  (661 -­750)   -­‐ Mu’awiya,  the  successor  to  the  assassinated  Ali,  became  the  next  caliph  and  moved  the   centre  to  Damascus  in  Syria     -­‐ Umayyad  family  was  responsible  for  the  spread  of  Islam  as  fat  as  Spain  and  by  732  in  France   -­‐ Islamic  art  and  architecture  was  on  the  constant  increase.  A  notable  achievement  is  the   Dome  of  the  Rock  built  in  691     Abbasid  Dynasty  (750 -­1250)   -­‐ The  Abbasid  rulers  overcame  the  Umayyad  Dynasty   -­‐ Moved  the  capital  from  Damascus  to  Baghdad   -­‐ Abbasid  rulers  were  wealthy,  luxurious,  powerful,  enjoyed  the  good  life  with  slaves,  women,   wine,  travel  etc.     -­‐ Religiously,  however,  the  ideals  of  the  Quran  were  lost  mo re  and  more     -­‐ Emphasis  on  scholarship   -­‐ A  great  library  was  built  in  Baghdad   -­‐ Important  was  the  translation  of  Syrian  and  Greek  philosophical  works  those  of  Plato,   Aristotle  etc.  into  the  new  lingua  franca,  Arabic   -­‐ Intellectual  centers  were  also  established  in   Cordoba,  Spain  and  Cairo,  Egypt     -­‐ This  intellectual  development  acquainted  Islam  with  the  philosophical  and  religious   traditions  of  the  West  and  gave  the  impetus  for  Islamic  scholars  to  develop  Islamic   philosophy     1. The  political  integration  began  in  912  when  the  Umayyad  ruler  proclaimed  himself  caliph  of   the  Islamic  ummah.  Of  the  three  caliphs,  Abbasid  ruler  became  the  weakest  one.  People   turned  back  to  Umayyad  (the  strong  believers)   th 2. The  Turks  moved  into  Mesopotamia  in  the  11  century  and  took  more  and  more  control  of   Palestine,  Syria,  and  Baghdad   -­‐ The  rivalry  between  Muslims  and  Christians  also  include  the  time  of  the  Christian  crusades   o Jerusalem  was  by  the  crusaders  in  1099  but  captured  by  Saladin  in  1187   3. The  second  wave  of  decline  came  with  the  invasion  of   the  Mongols  beginning  in  the  12   th century     -­‐ In  1258,  the  Mongols  destroyed  Baghdad  and  left  Muslim  rule  in  disarray  for  about  two   centuries       th The  Kharijites  (7  century)   -­‐ Had  very  interpretation  of  Islam  law     -­‐ They  believed  that  “no  judjment  but  God’s  judgem ent”     -­‐ Very  conservative       The  Qadarites  (8  century)   -­‐ Debated  human  freedom  in  relation  to  divine  predestination     -­‐ Questioned  and  debated  the  idea  of  freedom  and  the  Quran   -­‐ The  espoused  the  view  of  freedom;  however  the  orthodox  view  that  developed  in  Islamic   teaching  was  the  opposite       RS  110  –  101:  Lecture  17   Islam  Theology   -­‐ In  Arabic  the  word  that  is  used  to  describe  theology  is   kalam  which  means  “speech”   -­‐ Analytical  thinking  if  God  exists   -­‐ Theology  is  similar  to  philosophy  because  they  both  analyze  religion  and  the  use  of  the  mind     -­‐ Islamic  theology  was  formed  in  response  and  opposition  to  Jewish  though,  Christian   theology,  Gnostic  speculation,  and  Zoroastriams     -­‐ Mu’tazilite  theology:  discussed  question  of  hermeneutics  (Quran  was  not  eternal -­‐  cannot   associate  term  with  Allah)   -­‐ Theology  and  philosophy    created  in  response  to  Greek  philosophy   o Taking  questions  at  stake  and  questioning  even  more     Islamic  Philosphy   -­‐ It
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