RS110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Antiochus Iv Epiphanes, Hellenistic Judaism, Babylonian Captivity

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Published on 13 Jul 2016
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Religious Studies
Course
RS110
Professor
17 Sep. 2015
Judaism
Judaism is the way of… Torah
Tanakh – Torah, Neviim, Ketuvim
Hebrew Bible – Torah (24 books)
Torah (T) Prophets (N) Historical Writings (K)
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
(Written by Moses?)
Joshua
Judges
Samuel
Kings
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Minor prophets (one book):
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Psalms
Proverbs
Job
Ruth
Song of Songs
Lamentations
Ecclesiastes
Esther
(Megilloth)
Daniel
Ezra-Nehemiah
Chronicles
Origin Questions
Question of hermeneutics
Authorship
Nature of text: Anthropomorphic language – speaks of God as if God was human (e.g. “God
spoke”)
Origins
Creation (Gen. 1-2)
Fall of Humanity (Gen. 3-4)
Covenant with Abraham (12; 17 Circumcision)
The Patriarchs (Abram/Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob)
Jacob had 12 sons, leading to the 12 tribes of Israel
Slavery in Egypt (c. 1290-1250 BCE)
Moses
Pharaoh, 10 plagues
Exodus from Egypt
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Creation
Should not be read as a literal scientific story of creation, but instead as a myth with a message.
Two accounts – one with man and woman made together and one with woman made after.
The first woman is Lilith, a demon who flees Adam.
Fall of Humanity
Serpent convinces Eve to eat an apple of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Eve in turn
convinces Adam.
They recognize their nakedness and God, in anger, casts them out of Eden.
Abram
The first covenant with God.
Abram’s future generations will be prosperous (“great nation”) if every male is circumcised (a
symbol of the covenant).
Three Aspects of Covenant (Deut. 7:6-14)
1. Love of God
2. Keeping of the commandments
3. Blessing given (depending on if the commandments are kept)
Moses
Given the Ten Commandments by God
Led the Jews out of exile
Golden calf – Moses’ brother Aaron makes a golden calf for the Israelites to worship in place of
God and Moses, and when Moses finds out he shatters the Ten Commandments in anger.
Biblical account says the Israelites slaughtered the Canaanites (under Joshua’s leadership), but
there is not archeological evidence of this.
Midrash: Rabbinic commentary or interpretation.
Documentary Hypothesis: The theory that the five books of Moses were written by four different
authors, based on differences in style and vocabulary. This relates to the concept that the Bible is a
human—as opposed to divine—creation.
Way of Torah
“Torah” = Law, Instruction, Way of Life
Life under Torah = Renewal of Covenant
“It was because the LORD loved you and kept the oath that he swore to your ancestors, that the
LORD has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of slavery,
from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt” (Deut. 7:8).
Decalogue/Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-17)
1. You shall have no other gods before me.
2. You shall not make for yourself an idol.
3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the LORD your God
4. Remember the Sabbath day, and keep it holy.
5. Honour your father and your mother.
6. You shall not murder.
7. You shall not commit adultery.
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8. You shall not steal.
9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.
10. You shall not covet your neighbour's house, wife, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or
anything that belongs to your neighbour.
Tetragrammaton: “Four-letter word”; referring to YHWH, the way Jews write God’s name because it
is too sacred.
22 Sep. 2015
The Sabbath
Relates to one of the ten commandments
A 25-hour day of rest beginning at sundown on Friday
Recognizes God’s day of rest after creation
The Way of Torah
365 negative commandments (prohibitions)
248 positive commandments
613 commandments in total
Noachide Laws
Seven universal laws:
1. Idolatry
2. Blasphemy
3. Murder
4. Sexual sins
5. Theft
6. Eating blood
7. Law of establishing a legal system
Shema Israel (Deut. 6:4-9)
The prayer of Israel
Placed in a tefillin (leather strap), tallith (prayer shawl), and kippah (head covering)
Judges, Kings, and Prophets
Judges (1200-1000 BCE) – People who spoke for the nation
Demand for a king among Israelites
Israelite Kings:
oSaul
oDavid (1012-972 BCE)
oSolomon (972-926 BCE) – Built the Temple
oRehoboam (926-910 BCE)
oDivided kingdom Israel & Judah (926 BCE)
oAssyrians conquered North (722 BCE)
oBabylonian conquer of South (586 BCE)
oMonarchy and Theocracy
oThe Solomonic Temple
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Document Summary

Nature of text: anthropomorphic language speaks of god as if god was human (e. g. god spoke ) Jacob had 12 sons, leading to the 12 tribes of israel. Should not be read as a literal scientific story of creation, but instead as a myth with a message. Two accounts one with man and woman made together and one with woman made after. The first woman is lilith, a demon who flees adam. Serpent convinces eve to eat an apple of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. They recognize their nakedness and god, in anger, casts them out of eden. Abram"s future generations will be prosperous ( great nation ) if every male is circumcised (a symbol of the covenant). 7:6-14: love of god, keeping of the commandments, blessing given (depending on if the commandments are kept) Golden calf moses" brother aaron makes a golden calf for the israelites to worship in place of.

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