RS110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Worship God, Islamic Calendar, Five Pillars Of Islam

127 views12 pages
Published on 13 Jul 2016
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Religious Studies
Course
RS110
Professor
10 Nov. 2015
Islam
Islam is the way of… Submission
Origins
Root: s-l-m means “submission” or “surrender”; also means salam, “peace”
Muslim: One who submits to the will of Allah
oVs. Mohammedan: Worshipper of Muhammad
Inanimate/animal life is Muslim by nature, humans are Muslim by will/obedience
Profession of faith (shahadah): “I bear witness that there is no god except God and I bear
witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God.”
oSaid in the presence of two Muslim witnesses will make you Muslim.
Qur’an/Koran
“Recitation”
Written in Arabic and cannot be translated
114 Sûrahs (books)
Originated from the Night of Power
Relatively little biographical information about Muhammad
Most important teachings of Muhammad – divine prophecy
Only text considered a holy scripture
Other Texts
Hadith: 8th Century; written collection of sayings that are believed to be divinely inspired and
traced back to Muhammad.
Sunnah: The biography of Muhammad
Pre-Islamic History
Age of Foolishness/Ignorance (jahiliyah)
Lack of moral and religious consciousness
Judaism and Christianity are part of this age. They have a common monotheistic ground with
Islam, but distorted the once pure revelation given to Moses and Jesus.
Moses and Jesus played a role in the path to revelation, but did not complete it.
Islam alone is the fulfillment of all religion as it completes the revelation that began with Adam.
Allah: The creator god, but was not worshipped alone (polytheism and animistic worship).
Kaa’bah: Large rectangular stone in Mecca; a shrine that served as a place of idolatrous
worship in pre-Islamic times.
Al-lah and Three Goddesses – three daughters of Allah
oAl-lat, Al-uzzah (Venus/Aphrodite?), Manat
oQuran repudiates these goddesses
Abraham
Abraham is considered the first true Muslim (the first who submitted to God)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Migrated to Mecca with his son Ishmael
In Mecca, Allah commanded Abraham to cleanse the Kaabah from idols, and Abraham
submitted.
Islam is sometimes characterized as “the pure religion of Abraham”
Muhammad (570-632 CE)
Born in Mecca in 570 CE
oMecca was a caravan station on the trade route between north (Syria), south (Africa),
and east (India)
oArab tribes in Mecca resisted Christian proselytizing
Part of the tribe of Quraysh
His father died before his mother died shortly after his birth, so he grew up as an orphan, cared
for by his grandfather and then his uncle
Worked for Khadijah, a rich widow. They married in 595 when Muhammad was 25 and had six
children, all of which died but one daughter (Fatima).
Had 12 wives over his lifetime
No financial worries due to his marriage with Khadijah, so he focused on spiritual things
Known as al-Amin – “The trustworthy one”
Inspired confidence in people as he was contemplative, honest, and good-natured.
Helped the weak, sick, and oppressed in Mecca
Abhorred idol worship and immorality of Meccan society
The Black Stone Arbitration
Two tribes fighting over who gets to put the stone back to the Kaabah. Muhammad brought a
blanket and had everyone grab a part of it and carry it together. This shows his good nature.
The Night of Power (610 CE)
26th day of Ramadan
Given the ability to read and recite by the angel Gabriel; the beginning of the concept of
revelation – Quran’s origin
Muhammad received more revelations after that and preached his new message and was
considered a prophet.
Muhammad’s Message (610-622)
This new message was one of monotheism, condemning polytheism
Themes of death, judgement, and afterlife
First converts were his wife (Kadijah), son-in-law Ali, slave, and good friend (Abu)
Not very successful
oUndermined authority of the merchants
oRejected Muhammad’s prophet-hood
oThreatened ancient practices in the tribal system
oDenounced the ethical and religious practices of the system at the time
The Turning Point (622)
619 – His wife and uncle die
Loss of tribal protection, leading to persecution
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Miraculous night journey to Jerusalem where today is the Dome of the Rock, leading to an
epiphany in Allah’s presence
620 – Negotiations with Yathrib (later known as Medina), the “city of the prophet”.
622 – Pledge of War; Arbitration between feuding tribes in Medina
People of Medina accepted Muhammad as Allah’s prophet and pledged war against Mecca.
Mohammad’s migration is known as hijrah (pilgrimage), the official beginning of Islamic
history and the Islamic calendar
12 Nov. 2015
The Medinian Years (622-630)
Mohammad formed the Muslim community known as ummah.
Mohammed adopted prayer toward Jerusalem (later Mecca, the East) and day of rest from the
Jewish community.
Jews rejected Mohammad as final prophet and Quran as holy scripture
Tension split between Jews and ummah
Return to Mecca (630)
Mohammad set out to fight Mecca with 10 000 armed men.
Meccans submitted to him without bloodshed.
Mohammad cleansed the kaabah.
He proclaimed, “God is great! Truth has come. Falsehood has vanished.”
Muslim missionary activity began.
Death of the Prophet (632)
Final pilgrimage to Mecca, known as the hajj, became a model journey that is one of the five
pillars.
Dies in Medina
Abu Bakr (his friend) proclaimed, “Mohammad is dead … God is alive, immortal.”
Islamic Belief
The concept of God (Allah = al-lah = “the God”)
oAbsolute ONE God (more than Christianity and Judaism)
oGod is transcendent, truth, omnipotent, eternity, immutable, and severe in punishment.
Creation (six days)
oHumans created from “one soul”; “two spouses, male and female”
oHumanity from dust/clay and sperm/blood
oHumans created to worship God
oAll creation is made good
oHierarchal structure of the universe
No concept of human sinful nature
oNatural capacity toward faith; original state of purity/innocence
oSin is a matter of forgetfulness and negligence (see table below)
oAdam as both father of humanity and the first sinner through disobedience to God.
oKafir: Person who forgets/conceals (sins)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Root: s-l-m means submission or surrender ; also means salam, peace . Muslim: one who submits to the will of allah: vs. mohammedan: worshipper of muhammad. Inanimate/animal life is muslim by nature, humans are muslim by will/obedience. Profession of faith (shahadah): i bear witness that there is no god except god and i bear witness that muhammad is the messenger of god. : said in the presence of two muslim witnesses will make you muslim. Written in arabic and cannot be translated. Most important teachings of muhammad divine prophecy. Hadith: 8th century; written collection of sayings that are believed to be divinely inspired and traced back to muhammad. Judaism and christianity are part of this age. Islam, but distorted the once pure revelation given to moses and jesus. Moses and jesus played a role in the path to revelation, but did not complete it.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.