SMF204 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Gender Role, Ego Ideal, Mangaia

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Biologically male or female, XX or XY
Maleness or femaleness
Feminine vs masculine
Psychological and sociocultural vs biological
-gender identity; self concept of being female or male; identity self-construct
-gender role; complex clusters of behaviors/mannerisms to which we are
expected to conform on the basis of our sex. Culturally defined.
-Gender roles can change depending on culture;
ie normal for men to hold hands in Italy, but odd here.
ie clothing in department stores, blue vs pink
Sexuality involves: physical activities
Behavior – for reproduction and/or pleasure
-erotic feelings; desires, fantasies, thoughts, urges, attractions
(motivational part of sex)
-sexual organs
- as above, sexuality involves identity, an integral part of who we are
Human Sexuality
- how we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings (gender, gender
identity, gender roles, sexual orientation). Critical part of the self.
1) Historical Perspective
a) historians will study how various behaviors are viewed at different times
b) method: examining historical documentation
c) conclusions: different societies have tolerated different behaviors and
different attitudes
2) Religious/Moral Perspectives
a) what is “right” and what is “wrong”
b) closely tied to historical (documents versus practice; eg. Birth control is
prohibited in Catholic faith, however catholic women still use birth
control more than Protestants) conservative vs liberal ideologies
c) eg. sex is for reproduction
d) method: examining religious writings
e) conclusion: great difference across religions and sometimes within
3) Psychological Perspective
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