Karl Marx looked at human nature as plastic, meaning that it is shaped by
whatever society we live in. He believed that the origin of the state came from class
conflict (bourgeoisies vs. the proletariats), and that freedom can only be achieved when
capitalism falls and the society becomes classless. He states that a classless society will
also bring full economic, social, and political equality.
Problems that are rooted in capitalism include class conflict, exploitation of
workers, alienation of work, private property ownership, and false consciousness. Karl
Marx believes that capitalism will fall because he takes on a dialectical approach, which
means that a rise of one idea would lead to the rise of an opposing idea. With these two
new opposing forces fighting, a new idea will emerge (socialism and communism). Karl
Marx argues against capitalism, stating that capitalism distributes wealth unequally and
exploits workers. This will produce a germ of its own destruction, meaning that if the
bourgeoisie continues to work the proletariat, the proletariat will begin to see their
oppression and create class conflict.
Marx stated that under capitalism, work is distorted. This is known as alienation
of work. The alienation of work includes the alienation of product, process, others, and
species being. He states that in a capitalist society, workers are alienated from the
products because they usually cannot afford to buy the products that they are making.
They are alienated from process because their opinions and advices do no matter in the
workplace. Workers are alienated from others because they are not allowed to socialize at
work. Finally, they are alienated from species being, meaning that they are alienated from
human nature and what they believe is morally right.
Marx also mentioned that the root of class conflict came from the idea of private
property. This shapes human behaviour and attitudes and is the reason behind inequality
and oppression. From this, false consciousness emerged. False consciousness is when
capitalism makes people believe that they have freedom, when they are in fact oppressed
without even knowing