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Lecture 3

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Sociology Lecture 3 bell hooks - Black feminist thought - Rarely recognized back women as separate from black men - Criticized feminist theorizing that automatically positions households as places of patriarchal oppression for women - hooks argues against universal assumptions about women’s experiences Foucault’s Post Structuralism - Concerned with how knowledge is socially produced - Foucault (Power, Knowledge and Discourse) - Power created within social relationships, multidimensional, found everywhere and always at work - Knowledge can never be separated from relations of power - Discourses guide how we think act and speak o Tell us how the world is and how it ought to be - Panopticon spurred idea about power - Discipline is how we come to be motivated to produce particular realities - Power operated by producing some behaviours while discouraging others - Discipline (form of power) works through surveillance - Surveillance: acts of observing recording and training - Normalization: a social process by which some practices and ways of living are deemed normal and others abnormal - Connect power and knowledge through surveillance to guide us how we live our everyday lives Queer Theory - Problematizes the standard of equality based on sameness - Three main areas of queer theory: desire, language and identity - Desire o Aim to disrupt categories of normal and acceptable sexuality - Language o Unable to capture whole truth of reality o Normal vs. Abnormal - Identity o Social production o Constructed through social relations and discourse Post Colonial Theory - Focus on the political and cultural effects on colonialism - Imperialism: “What happens at home” - Colonialism: “What happens away from home” - Post suggests a focus on events that happened after formal colonialism ended in the early 1960’s - Canada and internal colonialism – Aboriginal Peoples - Has post-colonialism been realized in Canada? Sociology Lecture 3 Canada and Colonialism - Canada has its own colonial history - Consider our Aboriginal population, are we post-colonial? - Canada’s pas practices with respect to Asian immigration have been less than exemplar Anti-Racist Theories - Critical Race Theory o Racism is endemic to American life o Acts of racism are not individual, isolated, random acts o Insists on contextual/historical analysis of the law o Value in drawing on experience o Interdisciplinary Chapter 4 Connecting Theory to Research Questions - Macrosociological theories ask “large” questions o Conflict theorists, struggles over scarce resources o Functionalist, smooth functioning of society o Large questions - Microsociological theories ask questions about experiences and meanings o Symbolic interactionists, meanings people use to facilitate social life Quantitative and Qualitative Approach - Quantitative Approaches (Numerical Data) o Determining significant relationships between variables o Generalizable o Comparative - Qualitative Approaches (Non-Numerical Data) o Smaller sample sizes o Interviewing and observation o Researchers are research ‘instruments’ Systems of Reasoning - Inductive logic o Move from data to theory o Gather information about a topic before developing theories about how to explain particular aspects o Most often use qualitative approach - Deductive logic o Move from theory to data o Develop a theory or set of theories to explain or predict a pattern and then test the theory o Most often use a quantitative approach Sociology Lecture 3 Research Concepts - Hypothesis o In quantitative research one begins with a testable theory o A tentative statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically - Variables are used to measure relationships o Independent Variable: can be varied or manipulated o Dependent
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