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Lecture

Jan,11,2012.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Semester
Winter

Description
4Jan, 11,2012 Modern Social Theory  Modern theorist bring classical theorist up-to-date  many of these theories are based on classical theories  theme of power runs through modern theories, not just physical power. What are the Modern Social Theories? Western Marxism ex. Antonio Gramsci -was interested in how the ruling class rules -Diverged from Mark in his analysis of how the ruling class rules -Gramsci explored the question of how did this control work and how did societies comply? -Domination; physical and violent coercion (what happens if we get caught) -Hegemony; ideological control and manipulation (where do we get ideas of how we justify out societies) -Gramsci says it is because we are manipulated and ideas have been planted there -society's dominant ideas reflect the interests of the ruling class, because we are all manipulated CONFORMITY through media ( we end up giving consent) Superstructure (institutions we create) divided into the state and civil society  prevailing consciousness internalized by population and becomes common sense  needs up becoming our own common sense  Hegemony is a process that is constantly negotiated and renegotiated How are we controlled in society?  we are told that everything makes sense for a reason Feminist Theories -core concern for gender oppression Contributors -our society is progressing but is still not where men and women are equal -men have social power and thus an interest in maintaining their social privilege over women ex. Dorothy Smith (feminist theorist) -studied sociology for women -wrote The Everyday World as Problematic -all the sociology was developed by men and she wrote a book on women's perspective on sociology -she begins her research by saying you have to talk to real people on there terms -begins in the 'actualities' of people's lives, and addresses problems oh how we are influenced by "extra- local" relations -everyday world, a person standpoint and what their point of view -she worked on the theory of Standpoint theory Ex. Bell Hooks -rarely recognized black women as separate from black men -focused on the problems of black women because there different from the black male problems -hook argues against universal assumptions about women's experiences Post-Structuralism -concerned with how knowledge is socially produced and distributed -what do we accept as truth and knowledge -Michel Foucault (power, knowledge and Discourse) -manipulating behaviour ex. one kid Rule In China -Power created within social relationship, multidimensional, found everywhere and always at work -Knowledge can never be separated from relations of power -Discourses guide how we think, act and speak -tells us how the world is and how it ought to be -our knowledge may not represent what's really happening, they could be made up and the solutions are not necessarily correct -discipline is how we come to be motivated to produce particular realities - we become conditioned to act in particular ways -power operates by producing some behaviours while discouraging others - they will manipulate our access to knowledge - also set up an effective system of surveillance, that makes society think that someone is watching us even if there is no one really there ( AKA BIG BROTHER) How do you control people? -just make people think that someone's always watching -surveillance- acts of observing, recording and training -normalization- a social process by which some practices and ways of living are deemed normal and others abnormal Ex. Jeremy Bentham Queer Theory -problematizes the standard of equity based on sameness the sameness is a problem ex. Eve sedgwick, judith Butler and Adirenne rich -three main areas of queer theory:  desire -people are complex -aim to disrupt categories of normal and acceptable sexuality  language -unable to capture the whole truth of reality -normal vs. abnormal  Identity - the identity we develop are all unique -Social production -who we are and what we are through our interactions and socializations Post-Colonial Theory -ex. Germany, France, Britian -Focus on the political and cultural effects of colonialism -how colonies were affected by it - the British empire -imperialistic countries are the home countries (what happens at home) -Colonialism: "what happens away from home" POST suggest a focus on events that happened after formal colonialism ended in early 1960's what affects does this have on our economy and society Anti-racist Theories Critical Race Theory -racism is endemic (build into the) to American life -acts of racism are not individual, isolated or random acts -insists on contextual/historical analysis of the law -whats the history behind it? -value in drawing on experience interdisciplinary -intersectional LENS OF HISTORICAL RACISM (racial profiling) CHAPTER FOUR Research Methods and Ethics Connecting theory to research Question  Macrosoiological theories ask "large" questions  Microsociological theories ask questions about experiences and meanings o ex. marketing a new toy  feminists, issues surrounding gender and inequality  queer theorists , prblematize taken-for-granted concepts Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches Quantitative Approaches (numerical data)  determining significant relationships between variables  eliminate chance as explaining what were looking at  determines significant relationships between variables  macro in nature Qualitative Approaches  non-numerical data  sample sizes are smaller  interviewing and observation, focus groups, historical research  researchers are research 'instruments' Research Concepts  Hypothesis (scientific method/ quantitative approach) o in quantitative research one begins with a testable theory o a tentative statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically  Variables o are those concepts that you believe are something real that one can test and measure them  independent variable: some variable that has no correlation. ex. getting a
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