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SOC101 Lecture Notes - Richard Henry Pratt, Castillo De San Marcos, Correspondence Principle

Course Code
Barry Mc Clinchey

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Lectures about assignment in SOC 101
Education in Canada
Institution responsible for the transmission of knowledge, akills, values, and attitudes deemed
Formal education regulated and organized by the state
Informal education stresses societal norms and
History of Public education
Residential schools
o Earliest forms of formal education
Education and the state (aboriginal, “Indian” Residential Schools in the U.S. and Canada)
Based on Ward Churchill’s “Kill the Indian, Save the Man” 2004
o People thought that Indian were not human because they’re not Christian
o Get rid of the Indian children and rebuild them or replace them with a reproductive
member of the society (the idea behind the residential school system)
o By around 1885, the western territories in Canada and the U.S. were secured
o Both states looked to securing the land and moving… dafuq
o Policies were developed to:
Supplant the traditional mode of defining group members by genealogy
Prohibit spiritual practices by compelling Christianity
Disperse native populations as widely as possible
Reshape traditional modes of governance
o An initiative begun in both the U.s> and Canada in the 1870’s was to accomplish these
o The development of residential schools was to endure for almost 100 years.
o Every single aboriginal child was to be removed from his or her: home, family,
community, and culture
o Aboriginal children were to be held for years in state-sponsored “educational facilities”
and systematically be decultured
o In Canada the schools were known as residential schools, in the U.S. boarding schools
o Children (indian) were taught to see themselves in terms of the dominant society
o The head of the U.S. boarding school system was Captain Richard henry Pratt in 1879
o Pratt was an army captain and was once the warden of the Fort Marion military Prison
o Pratt was also the superintendent of the Indian industrial School at Carlisle, Penn.
o After opening the model school in Carlisle, Pratt was able to resign his military
commission and devote his time to educating Indians
o The Objective of the federal school system in the U.S. was stated by Pratt to be:
To “kill the Indian, save the man” in every pupil
Pratt developed successful techniques for:
o “ideological conversion”
o Prison industries which would become profit making ventures
o Many American “boarding schools” were modeled after his prison concepts
Residential schools
o Earliest forms of formal education
o Re-socialize aboriginal people to become civilized
Mass Education
o Industrialization and immigration
o Education viewed as essential to economic development
o Ontario first to offer free, compulsory education
Current education rates
Significant rise in post-secondary educational attainment
Massification of higher education participation; expectation of higher education for everybody
High school diploma does not translate into the same kind of pay as it could a few decades ago
Women account for 68.2% of full-time undergraduate students (2004-2005)
Compared to other OECD countries, Canada fares well
o Parsons (1959)
Schools need to both serve and reflect the values and interests of the society in
which they operate: the collective
o Schools help maintain equilibrium of social system
Act as a sorting mechanism for future roles in society (through allocation of
Teaches students how to function in the larger society (socialization)
o Criticism: clings to idea of society as a meritocracy, ignoring one’s social location
o Schools are up to representing and perpetuating the interest of those that are already in
power they’re not doing their job; schools are just protecting their power
o Schooling serves the capitalist aims of profit and complaint workers
o Schools make sure that they have a continuous population of “obedient workers”
o Bowles and Gintis (1976)
Correspondence principle prevails between schools and workplace; schools and
workplace are connected and not separate
Similar means of motivating behavior and authority structured
Students from privileged class backgrounds more likely to continue to higher
levels of schooling