SOC101 Lecture Notes - Body Modification, Class Conflict, Scientific Method
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Deviance and Crime
-Who goes to jail?
-US is the world’s leading jailer -- Canada is 5th
-Aboriginal offenders are more than twice as likely to be incarcerated than non-Aboriginal offenders
-Aboriginal accused are more likely to be denied bail
-More time is spent in pre-trial detention by Aboriginal people
-Aboriginal accused are more likely to be charged with multiple offenses
-Aboriginal people are more likely not to have legal representation at court proceedings
-The over representation of Aboriginal persons in the federal prison population is worsening
-Aboriginal persons accounted for 11% of the admissions to federal penitentiaries in 1991-92
-15% in 1996-97
-17% in 1997-98
-(Aboriginal people only represent 2% of adult Canadians)
-~what is behind the patterns that we see?
-In Manitoba, where Aboriginal persons comprise 9% of the adult population,
-they accounted for 61% of sentenced admissions to federal or provincial custody in 1997-98
-up from 55% in 1995-96
-This compares to 72% in Saskatchewan (which has a similar demographic)
-39% in Alberta
-16% in BC
-under 10% in other provinces
What is Criminology?
~~The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes the process of making
laws, breaking laws, and reacting towards the breaking of laws~~
- Crime: Designates certain behaviours and actions that require social control and social intervention,
codified in law
-Deviance- Actions that violate social norms, and that may or may not be against the law
**Most crimes are understood as deviant however all deviant acts are not criminal
Changes Over Time
-Female body modification
-Tattoos, Piercings, Smoking
-Proliferation of plastic surgery
What is Deviant?
-What are the accepted standards?
-changing over time
-Where is the line?
-~tolerated vs not tolerated
-Sexually explicit material vs. pornography?
-Any acts that involve the violation of social norms
-Howard Becker (1966)
-Not the act itself that is deviant, rather people’s reaction to the act that makes it deviant
-~up to us to decided if something is deviant or not.
-Who decides deviance?
-~laws come about because of lobby groups
-~prohibition -- alcohol illegal because of a very powerful lobby group
-COMPLEX- lots of sources
-ways of thinking, acting and being
-things people actually do
Theories on Crime Causation
-A framework for understanding criminal behaviour that can then be tested
-Provide us with an indication of how we can prevent or correct crimes
-Translated into policy
History of Explanations for Crime and Criminals
-evil spirits, demons and magic thought to be responsible for criminal activities
-Rational Choice Theory
-Movement to balance crime fairly
-~If we create painful punishments that are worse than the rewards from doing the deviant
act, they rationally choose to not do it
-Beccaria and Bentham
-If crime results in some form of pleasure for the criminal, then pain must be used to prevent
-~set out severe punishments
4 Beliefs of Classical Crime
-a) People have free will
-b) Less work for a greater payoff
-Easier to rob a bank and get lots of money than work for months and pay taxes
-c) The fear of punishment
-Deter people from engaging in this behaviour
-d) Sever, certain, swift
Problems with Classical Theories
1. Crime is not always rational
2. Not everyone is caught
Us is the world"s leading jailer -- canada is 5th. Aboriginal offenders are more than twice as likely to be incarcerated than non-aboriginal offenders. Aboriginal accused are more likely to be denied bail. More time is spent in pre-trial detention by aboriginal people. Aboriginal accused are more likely to be charged with multiple offenses. Aboriginal people are more likely not to have legal representation at court proceedings. The over representation of aboriginal persons in the federal prison population is worsening. Aboriginal persons accounted for 11% of the admissions to federal penitentiaries in 1991-92. (aboriginal people only represent 2% of adult canadians) In manitoba, where aboriginal persons comprise 9% of the adult population, They accounted for 61% of sentenced admissions to federal or provincial custody in 1997-98. This compares to 72% in saskatchewan (which has a similar demographic) ~~the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon.