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SOC 201
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Who are the VictimsVictimology is the study of the victim including the offender and societyVictimology emerged as a scientific subject for study until after the second world waroWith the research of Mendelsohn and Von hentif 1948 victimology became a distinct field of study from criminologyEarly theories focused on typologies of crime victimsAt focus on the ways in which a victim may contribute knowingly or knowingly to his victimizationMany victimization theories attempted to explain variations in victimization risksIn Theoretical criminology Vold categorized theories that related to victimologySpiritual explanation ofloods earthquakes and natural disasters were considered a result of interference from the spirit worldowhen harm was result of human action justice centered around revengeClassical CriminologyoEmerged from the age of enlightenment 1700soHumans needed to be protected against the oppression of existing institution justice systemThese new ways of thinking about an individuals relationship with the stateWere influenced by the writings of Hobbes lock Montesquieu and RoussequCeasare Bonesana Marchese de Beccarias wroteon crimes and punishmentAll men are capable of committing crimeSociety has an interest in maintaining orderAntisocial behaviour needs to be controlledPunishment must be used to deter crimeHowever punishment must be proportional to the crime1766 beccaris work was condemned by the roman catholic church1791following the french revolutionHis principles formed the basis of the french republics legal codeBeccarias influence can be seen today in aspects of deviance theoryoIndividuals base their decision to engage in crime on a costbenefit analysisoIf the punishment is deemed tobe more of a cost than benefits of the crime the criminal will choose not to engage in the crime behaviouro choice theoryoThis notion of deterrence is with us today
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