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Lecture

Juvenile Delinquency Chapter 6 and 10.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 222
Professor
Allison Chenier
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 6 and 10: Theories Saturday, March 2, 2013 4:44 PM Chapter 6: Lower-Class-Based Theories  Subcultural Lower-Class Theory o Two theoretical Perspectives  Strain Theories  Delinquency is the result of the frustrations suffered by the lower class who are deprived of legitimate means to achieve their goals  Subculture (Cultural Deviance Theories)  Learn criminal values and behaviour conforming to group standards which leads to breaking the laws of the dominant culture  7.1: Sub cultural Lower-Class Theory o Primary Assumptions  Most delinquent behaviour occurs in groups  Predominantly a lower-class male phenomenon o Theoretical Assumptions  Belonging to a group is a way of coping  Delinquent involves primarily lower-class boys from working class families  Boy's poor performance in school is related to delinquency  Poor school performance is due to cultural conflict between the middle-class and lower- class values  "The delinquent subculture is the explicitly and wholesale repudiation of middle-class standards and the adoption of their very antithesis" o Middle Class Measuring Rod  Dominant Class Values (the rod)  Ambition is a virtue  Ethics of individual responsibility  High evaluation of the cultivation and possession of skills  Delayed gratification  Rationality and planning  Cultivation of manners, courtesy, personality  Control of physical aggression and violence  Wholesome recreation  Respect for property  Why is there so much crime among lower-class youth??  Middle class measuring rod  Lower-class youth are different in many ways from dominant  Status frustration  Reaction formation  The Process of Status Frustration  Lower class socialization-> middle-class measuring rod-> school failure-> status frustration-> reaction formation-> delinquency and delinquent subculture o Ideal Delinquent Subculture  Malicious  Group autonomy  Negativistic  Non-utilitarian delinquency  Short run hedonism o Cohen argues that other factors can condition the response to status frustration:  Conditions at home  Individual's personality  Characteristics of the neighbourhood o Adapting to Status Frustration  College bou  Corner boy  Delinquent boy o Research Support  Lower class youth tend not to do as well in school compared to others (support)  School performance is related to delinquency (support)  Conflict between lower-class and middle-class values (partial support)  Delinquency occurs in a group context (partial support)  7.2 Differential Opportunity Theory o Two basic assumptions  Blocked economic aspirations lead to a low self-concept and frustrations  Frustrations lead to delinquency that vary by the structure of the conventional and criminal value systems in that particular neighbourhood o Differential Opportunity Theory is a combination of Merton's anomie theory and Sutherland's differential association theory o They use the following components Enphasis on cultural goals   Access to legitimate means are socially structured  Focus on the discrepancy between what is wanted and what is available  Cloward and Ohlin differ in that they show how illegitimate means are differentially distributed in society  Cloward and Ohlin believe that lower-class delinquents remain goal oriented  Focus on the process by which certain values and skills are learned through interaction with other in a primary group  Illegitimate opportunity involves learning and expressing the beliefs necessary for subcultural support  Occurs due to frustration created by not having access to legitimate means for economic success Differential Opportunity Theory **LOOK ON SLIDE o Features of Delinquent Subculture  Subcultural support of delinquent acts results in greater frequency of these acts  Youth participation in delinquent subculture can provide access to adult criminal career  Provides for a high degree of stability and resistance to control or change o Support for differential opportunity  Blocked economic aspirations affect attitudes and cause frustration (little support)  Lower-class gangs specialize by type of neighbourhood (partial support) o Differential opportunity theory provides a good explanation for the content of gang delinquency, but it doesnt explain how delinquency starts in the first place  7.3: Miller's Lower-Class Culture o Key points:  Juvenile delinquency is predominantly male and lower-class  Delinquency occurs because of the existenc
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