Class Notes (834,026)
Canada (508,290)
Sociology (717)
SOC 222 (41)

Juvenile Delinquency Chapter 6 and 10.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 222
Allison Chenier

Chapter 6 and 10: Theories Saturday, March 2, 2013 4:44 PM Chapter 6: Lower-Class-Based Theories  Subcultural Lower-Class Theory o Two theoretical Perspectives  Strain Theories  Delinquency is the result of the frustrations suffered by the lower class who are deprived of legitimate means to achieve their goals  Subculture (Cultural Deviance Theories)  Learn criminal values and behaviour conforming to group standards which leads to breaking the laws of the dominant culture  7.1: Sub cultural Lower-Class Theory o Primary Assumptions  Most delinquent behaviour occurs in groups  Predominantly a lower-class male phenomenon o Theoretical Assumptions  Belonging to a group is a way of coping  Delinquent involves primarily lower-class boys from working class families  Boy's poor performance in school is related to delinquency  Poor school performance is due to cultural conflict between the middle-class and lower- class values  "The delinquent subculture is the explicitly and wholesale repudiation of middle-class standards and the adoption of their very antithesis" o Middle Class Measuring Rod  Dominant Class Values (the rod)  Ambition is a virtue  Ethics of individual responsibility  High evaluation of the cultivation and possession of skills  Delayed gratification  Rationality and planning  Cultivation of manners, courtesy, personality  Control of physical aggression and violence  Wholesome recreation  Respect for property  Why is there so much crime among lower-class youth??  Middle class measuring rod  Lower-class youth are different in many ways from dominant  Status frustration  Reaction formation  The Process of Status Frustration  Lower class socialization-> middle-class measuring rod-> school failure-> status frustration-> reaction formation-> delinquency and delinquent subculture o Ideal Delinquent Subculture  Malicious  Group autonomy  Negativistic  Non-utilitarian delinquency  Short run hedonism o Cohen argues that other factors can condition the response to status frustration:  Conditions at home  Individual's personality  Characteristics of the neighbourhood o Adapting to Status Frustration  College bou  Corner boy  Delinquent boy o Research Support  Lower class youth tend not to do as well in school compared to others (support)  School performance is related to delinquency (support)  Conflict between lower-class and middle-class values (partial support)  Delinquency occurs in a group context (partial support)  7.2 Differential Opportunity Theory o Two basic assumptions  Blocked economic aspirations lead to a low self-concept and frustrations  Frustrations lead to delinquency that vary by the structure of the conventional and criminal value systems in that particular neighbourhood o Differential Opportunity Theory is a combination of Merton's anomie theory and Sutherland's differential association theory o They use the following components Enphasis on cultural goals   Access to legitimate means are socially structured  Focus on the discrepancy between what is wanted and what is available  Cloward and Ohlin differ in that they show how illegitimate means are differentially distributed in society  Cloward and Ohlin believe that lower-class delinquents remain goal oriented  Focus on the process by which certain values and skills are learned through interaction with other in a primary group  Illegitimate opportunity involves learning and expressing the beliefs necessary for subcultural support  Occurs due to frustration created by not having access to legitimate means for economic success Differential Opportunity Theory **LOOK ON SLIDE o Features of Delinquent Subculture  Subcultural support of delinquent acts results in greater frequency of these acts  Youth participation in delinquent subculture can provide access to adult criminal career  Provides for a high degree of stability and resistance to control or change o Support for differential opportunity  Blocked economic aspirations affect attitudes and cause frustration (little support)  Lower-class gangs specialize by type of neighbourhood (partial support) o Differential opportunity theory provides a good explanation for the content of gang delinquency, but it doesnt explain how delinquency starts in the first place  7.3: Miller's Lower-Class Culture o Key points:  Juvenile delinquency is predominantly male and lower-class  Delinquency occurs because of the existenc
More Less

Related notes for SOC 222

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.