Class Notes (839,116)
Canada (511,194)
Sociology (717)
SOC 222 (41)
Lecture 6

SOC 222- week 6-9.docx

12 Pages
78 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 222
Professor
Allison Chenier

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter 6 and 10: Theories Saturday, March 2, 2013 4:44 PM Chapter 6: Lower-Class-Based Theories  Subcultural Lower-Class Theory o Two theoretical Perspectives  Strain Theories  Delinquency is the result of the frustrations suffered by the lower class who are deprived of legitimate means to achieve their goals  Subculture (Cultural Deviance Theories)  Learn criminal values and behaviour conforming to group standards which leads to breaking the laws of the dominant culture  7.1: Sub cultural Lower-Class Theory o Primary Assumptions  Most delinquent behaviour occurs in groups  Predominantly a lower-class male phenomenon o Theoretical Assumptions  Belonging to a group is a way of coping  Delinquent involves primarily lower-class boys from working class families  Boy's poor performance in school is related to delinquency  Poor school performance is due to cultural conflict between the middle-class and lower- class values  "The delinquent subculture is the explicitly and wholesale repudiation of middle-class standards and the adoption of their very antithesis" o Middle Class Measuring Rod  Dominant Class Values (the rod)  Ambition is a virtue  Ethics of individual responsibility  High evaluation of the cultivation and possession of skills  Delayed gratification  Rationality and planning  Cultivation of manners, courtesy, personality  Control of physical aggression and violence  Wholesome recreation  Respect for property  Why is there so much crime among lower-class youth??  Middle class measuring rod  Lower-class youth are different in many ways from dominant  Status frustration  Reaction formation  The Process of Status Frustration  Lower class socialization-> middle-class measuring rod-> school failure-> status frustration-> reaction formation-> delinquency and delinquent subculture o Ideal Delinquent Subculture  Malicious  Group autonomy  Negativistic  Non-utilitarian delinquency  Short run hedonism o Cohen argues that other factors can condition the response to status frustration:  Conditions at home  Individual's personality  Characteristics of the neighbourhood o Adapting to Status Frustration  College bou  Corner boy  Delinquent boy o Research Support  Lower class youth tend not to do as well in school compared to others (support)  School performance is related to delinquency (support)  Conflict between lower-class and middle-class values (partial support)  Delinquency occurs in a group context (partial support)  7.2 Differential Opportunity Theory o Two basic assumptions  Blocked economic aspirations lead to a low self-concept and frustrations  Frustrations lead to delinquency that vary by the structure of the conventional and criminal value systems in that particular neighbourhood o Differential Opportunity Theory is a combination of Merton's anomie theory and Sutherland's differential association theory o They use the following components Enphasis on cultural goals   Access to legitimate means are socially structured  Focus on the discrepancy between what is wanted and what is available  Cloward and Ohlin differ in that they show how illegitimate means are differentially distributed in society  Cloward and Ohlin believe that lower-class delinquents remain goal oriented  Focus on the process by which certain values and skills are learned through interaction with other in a primary group  Illegitimate opportunity involves learning and expressing the beliefs necessary for subcultural support  Occurs due to frustration created by not having access to legitimate means for economic success Differential Opportunity Theory **LOOK ON SLIDE o Features of Delinquent Subculture  Subcultural support of delinquent acts results in greater frequency of these acts  Youth participation in delinquent subculture can provide access to adult criminal career  Provides for a high degree of stability and resistance to control or change o Support for differential opportunity  Blocked economic aspirations affect attitudes and cause frustration (little support)  Lower-class gangs specialize by type of neighbourhood (partial support) o Differential opportunity theory provides a good explanation for the content of gang delinquency, but it doesnt explain how delinquency starts in the first place  7.3: Miller's Lower-Class Culture o Key points:  Juvenile delinquency is predominantly male and lower-class  Delinquency occurs because of the existence of a unified lower-class culture with its own distinct value system  Miller sees delinquency as a reflection of a lower-class culture  Lower-class values are important for the survival of the lower-class males  Crime is motivated by the attempt to achieve valued goals o Theoretical Assumptions  Lower-class focal concerns exist  Focal concerns are the values that people focus on most living in this culture  Male adolescent groups (gangs) form in response to female- headed households and the lack of male role models o Focal Concerns  Trouble  Respect gained by being involved in and coping with conflict  Lawful versus illegal behaviour  Toughness  Hyper-masculine value of being able to withstand physical and emotional suffering and having a high capacity for violence  Smartness  Not formal education, but "street wise" ability to gain personal advantage (conning and crime savvy) Excitement   A high value placed on the pursuit of hedonistic pleasures through partying, the use of psychoactive substances and sexual conquest  Fate  A belief is an external locus of control results in committing and participating in high risk behaviours  Autonomy  The need to be free from external constraints and the dominant cultural values, rules, and regulations o The corner gang replaces these missing functions from the family  Belonging or adherence to the rules of the gang  Status is derived from achieving the focal concerns as they are defined within the cultural framework of the lower-class culture o Research Support  A distinct set of values exist for the economically disadvantaged in society (support)  7.4 Radical Theory: Explanations for Delinquency o Four primary Theoretical Assumptions  Most behaviour results from a class struggle over the modes of production  Capitalist economic system creates the class divisions  Proletariat are controlled by the bourgeoisie (economically, legally)  Most crime is committed by the lower-class due to the restraints placed upon them o Karl Marx: Marxism  Core of theory is class struggle and the conflict that results  Oppressions (bourgeoisie) and the oppressed (proletariats)  False consciousness (replaced by class consciousness)  Crisis of legitimacy o The Concept of Surplus Labour  Goods exceed wages in value-> profit-> Capitalist keeps profit-> profits buy machines that replace workers-> workers make less and buy less-> economic crisis o Marx's Views on Crime  Lumpenproletariat  Forsake their class position  Third-class society  Connection between criminality and inequality  Law overlooks economically beneficial behaviour  Crime  Product of an unjust, alienating, and demoralizing social condition created by opression o William Chambliss: Neo-Marxist  Legal norms reflect interest groups  Relationship between crime  Nature of criminal law  Consequences of crime for society  Causes of criminal behaviour o Richard Quinney: Neo-Marxist  Crime is a function of power relations and an inevitable result of conflict Criminal law is merely an instrument to perpetuate the current social and economic  order  Assumptions:  Crime is what those in power choose to define it as  Population segments with little power are more likely to see their behaviours legislated as crimes  Two broad categories of crime:  Crimes of domination and repression  Crimes of accommodation and resistance o Radical theories discuss two issues:  How capitalism is related to delinquency  How capitalist interests are met by identifying and legally controlling certain individuals and groups in society o Research Support??  Doesnt explain why middle- and upper-class youth also break the law  Most youth arent necessarily worried about their economic and workplace status  Doesnt consider the influence of other factors (e.g. School, family)  Limited connection between capitalism and institutional or demographic conditions o George Vold: Conflict Theory  Normative conflicts include conflicts of interest  Conflict assures social change, group solidarity, and social stability  Cause of crime is the law  Focus is on the processes of value conflict and law making, not the social structural elements underlying them  Laws are created by politically oriented groups to protect their own interests o Left Idealism  Radical theories  Eradicate capitalism  Overthrow the system to reduce crime o Left Realism  Reality of crime  Disenfranchised are both perpetrators and victims of crime  Implement community initiatives to inhibit crime o Conflict theory  Improve social programs to reduce class-based gap and reduce crime 8.1 : Social Control Theories  Four underlying Assumptions for Social Control Theories o Individuals need to be controlled o Delinquency is to be expected because of the pressures associated o Reason for delinquency is the lack of a control mechanism o Society agrees upon the conventional norms and values  Why do people actually obey the law instead of committing crimes?? o Other theories we have been covering have looked at why people commit crimes Walter C. Reckless: Containment Theory  Criminality is catching an illness o Criminality is caused by pressures to get involved in crime and an absence of ones to resist it  Key concepts o Self concept (image or value) of being a good person o Pushes and pulls are going to produce delinquent behaviour  Social Control Mechanisms o External (outer) containment; youth will have a sense of belonging  Preserved rewards for committing the crimes o Internal (inner) containment; individuals ability to follow norms in the society  Family problems, psychological problems  If effective, external and internal containments are a stabilizing force blocking pushes and pulls that can lead to delinquency o According to Reckless, inner containments is more important than external containment to control delinquency because it reflects the self-concept  Issues with the Containment Theory o Delinquent youth can actually have a higher personal self-concept than non-delinquents  Maybe because they have less to lose?? Howard B. Kaplan: Self-Derogation Theory  Self Derogation Theory o Ridicule (by peers) decreases self-esteem leading to a loss of motivation to conform to societal values and norms o Variation of containment theory; delinquency can raise self esteem for some delinquents  Theoretical modification o Oyserman and Markus (1990) adapt Merton's anomie theory Travis Hirschi: Social Bond Theory  Underlying Assumptions o The bond to society plays a larger role in delinquent behaviour than personality characteristics o Adopts the viewpoint of Hobbes  He asks the question; "why dont people violate the rules more often then they do??"  Cause of Delinquency o A weak or broken social bond to society can lead an individual to engage in deviant and criminal behaviour  Comparison to Differential Association Theory o Hirschi focuses on the variations in the process of socialization  Some people are not as bonded to society as others o Sutherland focuses on variation in the content of socialization  Learning more definitions that are favourable towards the law  Empirical Support o Hirschi's social control theory has more empirical support than any other theory of crime and delinquency  Elements of Social Bond to Society o Conforming Behaviour  Attachment (family, friends)  Primary element  Commitment (family, career, goals)  The rational element; the more commitment the more requirement to comform  Involvement (school activities, clubs)  The amount of time spent with others  Belief (honest
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit