Class Notes (835,432)
Canada (509,186)
Sociology (717)
SOC 222 (41)
Lecture

week six lecture.docx

9 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 222
Professor
Allison Chenier
Semester
Winter

Description
lSocial Disorganization Theory 6.1  Refers to institutions in society  Rule breaking is dysfunction and we have to neutralize disorganization or it will break society or change them to fit society according to Thomas and Znaiecki  4 basic assumptions o 1. Delinquency is mainly caused by social factors o 2. Societal institutions are in a state of disarray o 3. Under conditions of unstable social factors juveniles won’t be able to resist delinquency o 4. Most evident within the lower class  Social Disorganization Theory o When you have a infusion of people this increase cultural diversity and physical detrition in the neighbourhood. o We refer to a breakdown in the structure of the community in terms of collective norms resulting in crime and deviance we can’t stop these changes or the problems associated o Eventually the social pathology refers to the parts that are sick due to the transformation process that develops the deviant behaviour Park and Burgess CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL  The city is a living laboratory and ended up looking at cities with concentric zones  1.loop: retail business and manufacturers  2. Surround the city center and housing for people, residential to commercial and industrial  3.working class homes and no drive way but lanes behind  4.middle class single family homes; driveways, yards, garages  5.cimmuter zones: suburbs  Inner city 1-2: migrate outward when they get better economic positions, most impacted by change is inner ones.  2: transitional zone and most known for JD it has immigrants, migrants, primary areas for JD, high levels of mobility, unemployment, single earners, and confusion of common norms due to diversity 2 assumptions of Social Disorganization Theory o 1.Notion that rapid industrialization, urbanization and immigration leads to a breakdown in community-based social control  This creates areas of delinquency and replaces conventional norms o 2.Ecological Stability: rates of delinquency vary across the city regardless of who lives there  Shaw and Mckay 1942 ecological distributions of behaviour  Bursick: refers to the inability of local communities to realize the common values of their residents or solve commonly experienced problems  3 special characteristics are: o Ethnic heterogeneity o Residential mobility o Low economic status  They do not directly cause JD, but the limit to use formal social control and this allows more JD to occur  JD is most directly a consequence of social : school, community, family  Police is than required  A neighbourhood with high ethnic diversity=greater diversity of cultures and values  Greater amount of residential instability= less likely its members are to establish networks and community relations  IN COMBINATION with low socio-economic status= individuals experience: o Individuals experience: In combination with low socioeconomic status o High levels of social isolation o Weak social networks o Low social involvement o Low informal social control o More youth crime  Shaw and McKay’s pictures: o Cultural transition, tradition of delinquency moves from one generation to another o The inner loop have been calculated one mile at a time o They find that official rates declined as you move away from zone one and two o Highest rate was in industrial or commercial sites even with different ethnicities o They had higher rates of other problems: adult crime, tuberculosis, o More immigrates, non-whites, low home ownership (zone 2) o Critical factor was not ethnicity but the rather the position often group in terms of economic status and cultural values o Socially learned behaviour that is passed on through cultural transmission in these socially disorganized areas o Official rates declined as people moved away from the inner city: cultural transmission occurs as a lack of culture in  Cultural Transmission o Tradition of delinquency transmitted from one generation to another eventually develops despite rates of transition or residential instability Creates ideal environment for development of deviant subcultures and need for formal social control o Creates ideal environment for development of deviant subcultures and need for formal social control o Loss of collective efficacy o Breakdown in effective informal social control o Cultural transmission occurs due to absence of common culture and socially disorganized community o (UP)Social Disorganization Theory (DOWN) o Shaw and McKay’s Findings o Official rates of delinquency decline with movement away from inner city  We see a breakdown in community control  Due to tradition  With disorganization there is a loss of collective community: loss in social control for youth in the area.  Policy Implications for Program Development o One way to lower youth crime is by developing programs that help to combat cultural transmission o Most crimes are committed by normal people doing what they need o Community programs should help by combating social transition  SDT Argues that these structural characteristics affect social organization especially primary group controls= higher degrees of Delinquency  Sampson and groves: community structure influences social organizations such as friendship networks which in turn determine the level of crime and delinquency for a area. With friendship networks and unsupervised teenage peer groups and low organizational participation and higher rates if Crime and delinquency,  Variations in these dimensions decrease the a=effect if ethnicity heterogeneity, low economic status and residential instability; both Sampson mckay and groves restrain ethnicity heterogeneity  Ethnic heterogeneity: Chicago; defended neighbourhoods: encourage deliqeunt behaviour to protect themselves from others through gangs Social Disorganization Theory  6.1 “Those persons who occupy a disadvantageous position are involved in conflict between the goals assumed to be attainable in a free society and those actually attainable for a large portion of the population. It is understandable, then, that the economic position of persons living in the areas of least opportunity should be translated at times into unconventional conduct in an effort to reconcile the status and their prospects of attaining this status.” (Shaw and McKay, 1942, p. 180-181) 6.2 Anomie Theory  Anomie and strain one way or another social structures can encourage and foster delinquency  Anomie: People who adopt goals of society but lack means to attain them, will seek alternative such as crime and Delinquency  Strain: Strain comes from a variety of ways, Come from a variety of resources to coup with social condition, in the absent of inadequate coping mechanisms  The difference between societal conditions and individual opportunities is society: they experience frustration and alienation due to living within  Thus a large number of people are at a disadvantage; they are than motivated to commit crimes to attain goals that the cannot legally achieve with the availability is not readily accessible for them  the ability to achieve goals valued in society are now: Dependent  Durkhiem o Focus is on societal factors that integrate and regulate individuals in groups  Anomie is a social factor o State of anomie is societal crisis  because people cant achiever things so they commit anomic suicide o • Normality of crime: factor of public health and is necessary  Collective conscience  Factor is public health  Crime brings together upright consciousness  Concentrates on shred norms and behaviours  There is no society without criminality  Nuns and priest  Functional: crime and deviance called for community sanction and the public is reminded of what there not supposed to do, because punishment is high ritualized  Dysfunctional: it can destabilize societies moral order  Reflects an underlying weakness in moral order or precursor of anomie and will develop without norms (society) but society is always changing and actions and expectations change from one group to another o • Crime is functional and dysfunctional for society o • Underlying weakness in the moral order c) Crime is normal according to Durkheim and he has states that it is a factor of public health and a necessity. With combine the collective consciences and contracts on bringing communities together to upright consciousness. Crime is both functional and dysfunction for the following reasons. Crime is functional because in society it is recognized as a community sanction to ensure that the public is reminded of what they are not supposed to do. Punishment is highly ritualized in these comminutes as a way of making sure there is community awareness, this is placed in order to assure that everyone will receive the same punishment for the same crime. Crime is also dysfunctional, this can be because it can become so widespread that it destabilizes societies moral order. If we do not have any rules, laws or regulations and no one abides by them than we will have no moral order. A person with too much self-control uses it to control others and a person with low control attempts to escape the control of others. These people are usually the “bullies” in school. A person with a control imbalance sees deviance as a way to reset their control ratio in a favourable way. They are able to achieve goals through illegitimate means but the opportunity of crime has to be present. This idea comes from the rational choice theory. g) It can be seen that the Control-balance theory by Tittle is the most accurate definition of delinquency. Delinqu
More Less

Related notes for SOC 222

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit