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Lecture 2

# Lecture 2 – Terms & Concepts.docx

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School
University of Waterloo
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 280
Professor
Owen Gallupe
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 2 – Terms & Concepts Friday, September 13, 2013 5:47 PM 1. Independent and dependent variables 1. DV – Dependent Variable - an “outcome” 2. IV – Independent Variable - a “predictor”  Sometimes there is no correlation. When there is no IV/DV, you are looking for a relationship between the two.  IV affects the DV  i.e.  age affects income  income affects the size of house  Levels of measurement a. Categorical i. Binary ( e.g., yes/no)  Can only be one of two options. ii. Nominal (e.g., race: black, white, Latino, Aboriginal, Asian, other)  No order. Essentially they are names.  i,e, 0 = Asian, 1 = Black, 2 = White, etc. These numbers do not mean one is better or has an ordering. These are just a representation for a name for analysis purposes. iii. Ordinal (e.g., 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree; low, medium, high)  Some sort of order. Low – high or vice versa. No set distinction between the two. Similar to a survey where there is a ranking system. b. Continuous *On the midterm* i. Interval – p.10 (also on Field p. 10) – “equal intervals on the variable represent equal differences in the property being measured (e.g. the difference between 6 and 8 is equivalent to the difference between 13 and 15).”  The distinction between the two is not always clear. However, it does not always matter. As long as it is continuous, it is okay.  There is no real 0 point.  For example:  Temperature system. In Fahrenheit, 0 does not mean an absence of temperature.  Time. No absence of time of day. No certain time of day is twice of another. ii. Ratio – you can create a meaningful ratio. E.g., 6 is twice as much as 3.  There is a meaningful 0 point. Means an absence of something.  For example:  0 income means an absence.  Running speed. When you're standing still, there is a speed of 0. c. Measurement error  Possible issue
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