BIOL140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Peptide, Macromolecule, Actin

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21 Jun 2016
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October 6th, 2015
Gene Expression
Is a process by which the instructions (genes, chromosomes, DNA) for the structure and
function of cells and organisms and function of cells and organisms are translated into
proteins that become parts of cells and direct/control chemical reactions
Types of Proteins
a)
Collagen in ligaments, tendons, skin
Fibers in cytoskeleton
1.
Control chemical reactions
Make molecules smaller
Digestion
Enzymes
2.
Hemoglobin transports oxygen
Plasma membrane channel
Transport
3.
Immune System
Produce proteins to destroy pathogens
Cells encounter pathogens
Defense
4.
Intercellular communication
Produced in glands and excreted into blood
Produced in brain and controls growth in bones
Ex. Growth Hormone
Hormones
5.
Actin and myosin control the contraction of muscle fibres and muscle
Muscle Fibers
Motion
6.
Subunits called amino acids
The part that interacts with other molecules
R-reactive group
20 amino acids = 20 R groups
Many amino acids = polypeptide
Amino acids bond together by peptide bonds
Macromolecule
Protein Structure
b)
Protein function depends on protein shape
Reactive groups are sticking out where they need to be
Bonding spots are open for O2to bond
Ex. Hemoglobin
Each protein has a unique 3-D shape
Linear chains of amino acids
Order of amino acids depends on the order of nucleotides in DNA
Primary Structure
1.
Folding and spiralling of primary structure
Depends on order of amino acids in primary structure
Secondary Structure
2.
Four Levels of protein structures
Protein Shape
c)
Lecture Nine
October 30, 2015
6:52 PM
BIO 140 Page 1
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