BIOL140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: S Phase

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21 Jun 2016
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All cells except gametes have all 46 chromosomes and all genes
Cells are specialized for specific functions
Not all cells use all of the genes
Mechanisms that control/regulate the expression of genes
Regulation of Gene Expression
E)
Type of Control
Mechanism
Pre-transcription
control
1.
Regions of chromosomes
mRNA cannot be made
Condensed/compacted genes
Only uncondensed for S phase
Transcription
Control
2.
Transcription factors control when and how fast a
gene is transcribed
Post-
transcription
Control
3.
mRNA is held unprocessed in the nucleus until it is
needed
Translation
Control
4.
RNA factors can interfere with mRNA and prevents
mRNA from connecting to ribosome
Post Translation
Control
5.
Controls how fast proteins can fold into 3D shapes
Science seeks understanding based on facts
Science is more than a collection of facts
Scientific Method
Stages
Definition
Example
Observation
1.
Leads to a question that
can be tested
2 doctors noticed that all cases of peptic ulcers were
people who had a bacterial infection Helicobacter
pyloria
Hypothesis
2.
Possible explanation for
observation
Based on
prior/background
knowledge
Pylori causes peptic ulcers
H.
Experiment or
observation
3.
Testing the hypothesis
Self-tested
Treated with antibiotics and cured
Tested hypothesis
1974-
Nobel prize in medicine
2005-
Conclusion
4.
Indicating whether or not
the hypothesis was
supported
Possible explanation
Supported or refuted
Hypothesis
Theory
Lecture Eleven
October 30, 2015
9:33 PM
BIO 140 Page 1
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