Emotion as an ancient phenomenon
2.1. Plato and Aristotle.
Theory Three parts of a soul: Three psyches:
1. Reason – ideal, immortal and divine. 1. Nutritive: found in plants. Most basic, fundamental functions –
Home of cognition and rational mind. reproduction, growth, self maintenance through nutrition.
First proposed by naturalist/formalist
whom separated the intellectual and 2. Sensitive: found in animals, more complex. Added: sensation
sensual world. It is not organic/bodily. and pain, emotion, imagination. Perform automatic form of
memory (recognition of familiarity).
2. Passion – Motivation, courage, place
for complex emotion. Happen when 3. Rational: in human. Can accomplish specific complex abstract
we engage in interaction. thinking, think, weighs decision and act upon logic, recollection
(effortful specific search of memory).
3. Appetite—Sensual desire, sex, more
basic emotion that prompt us to look *The three psyches are listed in increasing complexity by nature.
after our body and fulfill our needs. It
is the MOST corrupt part. ▯Animal vs. human distinction:
*Passion and appetite are the source of • Emotion in sensitive (both human and animal has it).
emotion and are given moral treatment.
*Sensible vs. intelligible distinction is • Reason and emotion in rational (only in human).
• Emotion is unchecked in animal.
*Reasoning is valued by Aristotle OVER emotion. (Plato only believes in
By ways of nature, emotion is organic, reason is in human only, and it is
naturally and structurally superior.
Implication ▯ Theory of forms: we are born with innate • Knowledge can be attained through sensory and emotional
for education knowledge called forms/episteme. They are
& fixed and does not change. The goal of education
Suggestions. should be to help us reawaken it. The soul is • No innate universal
reincarnated into different lives.
• Tabula Rosa (mind is a blank slate).
• Sensory and emotional information is *Emotional experiences are not passive, they depend on
called Doxa, they are useless and
hinder us in finding true wisdom. evaluation (judgment based on our selfdetermined standards.
Hence, we are the author of our emotion & author of the
• Don’t look outside of you, or how your
body act upon environment, look Ex: Smiling give us a good feeling, because we evaluated it in a
Aristotle’s Rhetoric Persuasive persona:
1. Act like a good person. (
2. Make your argument seem honest.
3. Evoke emotions.
Quote: you need to evoke emotion that makes the most sense, appeal to the
person’s properties. Ex: pity, hope, greed.
2.2 Epicureanism & Stoicism Background: The Hellenistic Period when & what was it like?
▯ Between the civil war (between Spartans and Athen) in Greece and the establishment of Roman empire. Chaotic atmosphere, scholar use emotion
to give suggestions to the public on how to live through this period.
- Both agreed: good life is achieved by properly managing and understanding emotion.
- Suppression vs. prevention: prevention is easier, hence it is important to analyze the cause, and physical and mental activities need in order
to avoid feeling the emotion.
Moderation: eat, drink, own what you need. Don’t desire anything, don’t have goals at all.
Greatest threat to happiness is excessive consumption. Go with what you are given (they are what you are
meant to have).
Does not ban pleasure in consuming humble fare.
Human nature: emotional animal and rational human. Emotion is
adaptive, we feel emotion and it propagate our gene, but left Trust things will end up as they SHOULD.
unchecked without reason, then we will be the same as animal.
Hence, to be a proper human, we need to exercise self control and Desire is needless, it will only cause unnecessary
not thinking about unnecessary things. suffering.
Lack of goal is good, for goals can lead to unhappiness.
Roman empire & Christianity Long going hatred between the two groups, until one empire decides to accept Christianity. How to convert pagan
▯ St. Augustine (Integrated pagan thought with Christian doctrine, emphasizes similarities.)
Plato’s Christianity *Implication: we have an innate knowledge of
God. Look inwardly and make connection
1. Rational mind Soul
emotionally with God, do not focus on
emotion and sensory experience such as lust,
2. Immortal mind Given a place by religion. (with god). desire.
3. Forbid trusting sensory Sensory experience taboo.
- The difference:
▯Reasoning: favored by plato, but forbidden by the church. People should take what they’re given and trust it.
▯ motion: forbidden by plato, but it is okay with the Church as long as it is directed to God.
The medieval period
With the fall of Roman empire, the church lost its main ally. Many invading tribes caused economic depression.
• The dark ages
- Church feel threatened, and begin exerting emotional control. *The 7 deadly sins!
Gluttony, lust, avarice, envy, anger, sloth, pride. (emotional sinner).
- Monks exemplify the ideal lifestyle (focus inwardly with God, nonemotional lifestyle).
- Control of the masses, and outrageous few (imprisoned or executed).
• Dark ages relieved
- Increased stability in social structure by: papacy (reinforce church power, give structural) and Feudal systems (lord makes agreement with
farmers, by providing them some harvest and land, which in return the farmers shall fight for the lords in time of war).
- Church feel secure, relax on religious practice: perhaps sensory experience and reason can supplement faith.
▯ t. Aquinas (c