Emotion as an ancient phenomenon
2.1. Plato and Aristotle.
Theory Three parts of a soul:
1. Reason – ideal, immortal and divine.
Home of cognition and rational mind.
First proposed by naturalist/formalist
whom separated the intellectual and
sensual world. It is not organic/bodily.
2. Passion – Motivation, courage, place
for complex emotion. Happen when
we engage in interaction.
3. Appetite—Sensual desire, sex, more
basic emotion that prompt us to look
after our body and fulfill our needs. It
is the MOST corrupt part.
*Passion and appetite are the source of
emotion and are given moral treatment.
*Sensible vs. intelligible distinction is
1. Nutritive: found in plants. Most basic, fundamental functions –
reproduction, growth, self maintenance through nutrition.
2. Sensitive: found in animals, more complex. Added: sensation
and pain, emotion, imagination. Perform automatic form of
memory (recognition of familiarity).
3. Rational: in human. Can accomplish specific complex abstract
thinking, think, weighs decision and act upon logic, recollection
(effortful specific search of memory).
*The three psyches are listed in increasing complexity by nature.
Animal vs. human distinction:
•Emotion in sensitive (both human and animal has it).
•Reason and emotion in rational (only in human).
•Emotion is unchecked in animal.
*Reasoning is valued by Aristotle OVER emotion. (Plato only believes in
-By ways of nature, emotion is organic, reason is in human only, and it is
naturally and structurally superior.
Theory of forms: we are born with innate
knowledge called forms/episteme. They are
fixed and does not change. The goal of education
should be to help us reawaken it. The soul is
reincarnated into different lives.
•Sensory and emotional information is
called Doxa, they are useless and
hinder us in finding true wisdom.
•Don’t look outside of you, or how your
body act upon environment, look
•Knowledge can be attained through sensory and emotional
•No innate universal
•Tabula Rosa (mind is a blank slate).
*Emotional experiences are not passive, they depend on
evaluation (judgment based on our self-determined standards.
Hence, we are the author of our emotion & author of the
Ex: Smiling give us a good feeling, because we evaluated it in a
Aristotle’s Rhetoric-- Persuasive persona:
1. Act like a good person. (
2. Make your argument seem honest.
3. Evoke emotions.
Quote: you need to evoke emotion that makes the most sense, appeal to the
person’s properties. Ex: pity, hope, greed.
2.2 Epicureanism & Stoicism