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24 Apr 2014
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Lecture 3: Emotions and evolution.
What is the origin of life?
--Depends who you ask.
a. Christians in 16th century Europe: Special creation, implies immutable species.
*Fossil record reveals: 1. Species change.
2. Speciation.
3. Extinction. *thus, species are not immutable.
b. Early evolutionary theories: Lamarck.
-Transmutation of species was explained by principle of inheritance of acquired characteristics. (modification of limb occur during an
organisms life time due to increase or decrease used, and it is passed on to its offspring.
Ex: Weightlifter will have very strong and muscular babies.
Ex: Tape bird’s eyes to prevent sight  its offspring will born blind.
-Oversight: soft heredity, phenotype is not always tied in with genotype. Lamarck assumed emotion, appearance, behavior are all tied to
the gene.
c. Non-evolutionary precursors to Darwin.
i). Charles Lyell.
-Addressed the problem with Earth’s age, by looking at layers of the earth.
-Found that species change but it occur very gradually, thus if earth is young, there is not enough time to accommodate the changes.
-Principles of Geology: Earth is older than originally thought, 100million years not 2000-3000 years. Thus, there is enough time for species to
change.
ii).Thomas. Malthus.
-English political economist. Population growth rate” > “Food growth rate”. *Struggle for existence. Nature favor the fittest organisms.
*Fitness: best adapted to environment (physical, emotional, behavioral characteristics).
d. Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle.
Observed: there are differences within a specie. Ex: Finches with different beak sizes. Due to different dominate food sources on different
islands (hard vs. tender food).
-Natural selection: results from.
1. Within species competition.
-Number vs. the resources. Ex: Mate, food, shelter.
2. Heritable variations.
-Phenotype tied to genotype.
3. Conditions that differentially favor these variations.
-Eg. 1. Peppered moths—physical characteristic, black spot moth is favored after the industrial revolution).
Eg.2. Phototropism –Emotionality/psychological. Moths that likes light, it is a preference for light that is not required to live, thus this is
a psychological characteristic.
Sexual selection:
-Natural selection: making it to sexual maturity (basic survival)  low key and not stand out to avoid predators.
-sexual prowess (different); Sexual selection—may value traits that endanger basic survival.  bright color that attracts mates, also predators.
-self-preservation (NS)self-propagation (SS).
*Can have interference. Ex: huge bright colored crowns can attract more mate, but may also attract predators.
Given the two pressures, we can ask:
Which behaviors and emotions
-Help us survive?
-Help us reproduce?
-Help us pass our genes to the next generation?
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*Direct vs. indirect distinctions.
Direct: Produce offspring, directly passing genes along.
Indirect: helping with the kin (offspring of siblings, ex. Cousins, nephews).
To ask the questions, we presume that emotions serve functions:
àOrientation: help us figure out a problem when it occurs.
àorganizing: prepare our body for action. Ex: adrenaline…
àInteracting: help us bond with others, rear our offspring, be protective, foster social network, increase our chances of reproductive and parenting
success.
Darwin’s study of emotional expressions.
-The expression of emotions in man and animals.
-Found that: actors express very obvious, exaggerated emotions, the mentally illed express spontaneous emotions.
(How are emotions expressed in the face? What noises do animal make when emotional?)
Expression = face + vocalizations + body (tension, posture) + movements.
Darwin and emotional expressions as adaptations.
-Emotional expression: an action that used to directly aid with survival.
Ex: cat’s ears, wolves mouthing.
AND at that time performed in conjunction with felt emotion.
Ex: anger, happiness, gratitude.
-Emotion expression is an intention movement, it suggests what actions may follow.
Ex: Cat hiss  may be violence, dog mouthing, showing submission.
-As such, emotional expressions may save organism from carrying out elaborate suite of actions themselves (expression is a better survival
guarantee).
-Eventually, expression occurs even in situations where the action is Useless or Unnecessary.
Thus, can communicate intention (internal state) with emotions, without actually doing the behavior. This can physically protect the body.
Eventually, expressing it can become involuntary.
Darwin, Antithesis and Overflows
-Antithesis principle: Distinct signals of anger behaviors are different from what oppose it.
*Approach is the opposite of avoid, with very distinct signals.
-Overflows: puzzling gestures, vocalizations. With no function but are release of pent-up energy.
Criticisms of Darwin
1. Anthropomorphic
-Over-complicating, ascribe human quality (emotions) to animals.
2. Anecdotal
-The explanation used a lot of story, non-experimental.
-Even so, wealth of modern evidence supports Darwin.
a. Facial expression research: cross-cultural and cross-species. Also with children.(universal).
*The 6 basic emotion expressions: anger, fear, disgust, sad, happy, surprise.
*Thus, emotion is innate and not acquired. (nature, not nurture drives emotional expression). Emotional expressions are a product of
evolutionary past, not immediate environment or socialization.
b. Neural and endocrine research:
1. CNS & PNS: brain spinal cord, sensory and motor nerves… give rise to and also shape emotion.
2. Neurochemical and hormones: recruited when we’re involved in emotional state.
3. Similarities across individuals: If two people are both experiencing sadness, bodily characteristics will also be similar. Sadness is accompanied
by a particular bodily symptom. Drug injection or brain activation can induce emotion.
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Document Summary

Christians in 16th who century europe: Ex: tape bird"s eyes to prevent sight (cid:224) its offspring will born blind. increase or decrease used, time due. 1. is passed on and very species. change. its offspring. it strong. Found that species change but it occur very gradually, thus if earth is young, there is not enough time to accommodate the changes. Help us pass our genes us to the next survive? generation? (cid:224) Ex: anger, happiness, gratitude. time an at action that used to directly aid with survival. performed in conjunction with felt emotion. is an expression intention movement, Criticisms of darwin: anthropomorphic behaviors anger signals of are different from what oppose it. Also with children. (universal). and cross species. cross cultural b. neural and endocrine research: *interaction between experience and the innate fear. a monkey being scarred of (watch video of snake).

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