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Biol 121- 2010.03.05- Evolution- The Theory of Evolution (Ch. 24).docx

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Applied Biology
APBI 200
Paul Hewitt

Biol 121 225 Freeman 481-484 Mar 5, 10 Evolution 1- Ch. 24, The Theory of Evolution Origin of Species, Darwin 1859 Darwin said that: -all species have a distant common ancestor -natural selection – a population of organisms changes over generations if they are inheriting certain genes that allow them to leave more offspring (higher fitness) Aristotle, 300 B.C. -all life is part of a ‘ladder of life’  rocks, plants, lower animals, higher animals, humans, God Judeo-Christian concept -Old Testament: all species are created individually and are non-evolving -in the 1700s, natural theology – study nature to classify things on the ladder of life Carolus Linnaeus (1707-78) -wanted to classify everything – made binomial nomenclature -sought to discover order in the diversity of life -did not imply relationships between species, although other people that came after him would do so using his information Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) -the first palaeontologist What he knew He knew that: -fossils are relics of animals/plants, etc -new layers of rock cover old ones and are compressed into strata -erosion/upheaval expose older strata What he found He found that: -each stratum has different fossils -some species disappear from one strata to the next Charles Darwin (1809-1882) -found that species from tropical regions of South America were more related -what he found about geographic to species from temperate South America than tropical Africa distribution of species: -therefore, geography is important in determining species make-up in an area, not only climate Voyage of the Beagle -the Beagle = Darwin’s ship -the voyage was from 1830 to 1836 -visited the Galápagos Islands
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