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Lecture 3

ARTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Rudolf Arnheim, Semiotics, Roland Barthes


Department
Art History
Course Code
ARTH 101
Professor
T'ai Smith
Lecture
3

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Subject:"Viewer"or" artist"or"consumer" (e.g." yourself)
Subject(Matter:"Object" or"content," how"an"image" asks" us" to"look" at"it"(e.g." what"is"
within" the"picture)
Worldviews:" Modes/methods" of" apprehending" reality"(it"can"be"comprehensive" !
encompasses" the"understanding" of" the"world)," there" are"different" worldviews"
depending" on"different" communities
Engraving" limits," the"amount" of" detail" and" the"specific" elements" within" the" original"
artistic" piece." As"it"was"copied" again"and" again," it"removed" the" sense" of"legitimacy" but"
it"aided" scientific" developments/inquiry
Engraving" (a"network" of"lines)" vs." Woodcut
Photograph:"Able"to"depict"or"present" an"accuracy"of" reporting," it"is"considered" to"be"
purer" more" true" (as"it"does" not"distort" the"true"meaning)
SIGNS" AND" SIFNICATION:" Reading" Photographs" (or," the" trouble" with"photography?)
The"Illustrated( Press !Begun" circa" 1855" in"English" and" then" France" +"Germany"
(when" images" started" appearing" on" newspapers)" and" they"mainly" consisted" of"
lithographs/engravings
Late"19th/Early" 20th century" !The" lithography" was" then" surpassed" with" photographic"
images
Transparency/Immediacy:" True" image" of"reality," sense" of" immediate" capture
Not"preZmediated" which" supports" the" objectivity" (e.g." the" shaky" camera/the"
background" narration/movement" of" the"camera)
There" is"no" evidence" of"video" editing" software
The"filming" itself" represents" the"legitimacy" of"the"event," as"people" would" not"
film" unless" something" is" happening
HOWEVER," you" are"only" shown" what" is"filmed" but" not"before/after
o
Also" depends" on" other" contextual" factors," e.g." the"person" filming" the"video" may"
be"bias," the"representations" by" media" may" also" be" bias
o
Debate:"You" argue" that"the"photos" and"videos" taken" by" the"cell" phones" of"passersZby"
present" us" with" objective" truth
Denotative is"the" literal"meaning" (what" you" are"looking" at)
o
Connotative is"the"meanings" associated" with" it"(e.g." rose" would" connote" love)
o
Roland" Barthes" on" Myth" denotative" and" conative" meaning:"
The"problem" of" representation," or"the"slip" between" signifier( (the"soundZimage)" and"
the"signified( (the" concept" it"represents)" ="a"sign
Semiotics/Semiology:" The"study" of" how"meaning" is"constructed" NOT"what"the"
meaning" is
What"is"the" primary" difference" between" scientific" images" (diagrams)" and" art"(in" fact"all"
other" images" of" visual" culture)" for" Rudolph" Arnheim?
Symbolic:"A"sign"that"has"a"purely" arbitrary" relationship" (e.g." pink" ="girl,"rose" ="
love)
o
Iconic:( A"relationship" based" upon" resemblance" (e.g." maps," photographs" or"
diagrams)
o
Indexical: An"existential" or"causal" relationship" based" on"the" occurrence" of" coZ
presence" at"one" time/place" (e.g." fingerprints" or"photographs)
o
Charles" Sanders" Peirce:" Instead" of" using" the"Saussure" concept" of" signifier/sig nified," he"
looks" at"3"different" concepts/signs" (in" semiotics):
Lecture' 3'Notes
Friday," 23" October ," 2015
12:58" am
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