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India Lecture Sep 9 - Oct 5.pdf

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Asian Studies
ASIA 100
Peter Nosco

India Lecture Sep 9 - Oct 5 October-04-10 3:22 PM India, Pre-Aryan • River systems - Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra • Indus Culture (2500 - 1600 BC) • 2300 - 1700 BC - Flourishing times of Harappa (northern capital) and Mohenjo-Daro(southern capital) • Punjab Region ○ Harappa population was 35000depending on the granary size ○ 2000 BC - started trading with Sumeria ○ Mohenjo-Darorebuilt their walls at least 10 times within 500 years which is 40 feet high ○ Had some sort of writing system ○ Had sewage systems ○ Cities built near river systems  1700 BC - Floods ended Indus civilization ○ Made toys for kids ○ Painted pottery ○ Population decline starting around 1850BC • High pressure - the land is colder, denser, heavier • Monsoon'smake life possible • Southeast Asia started raising crops in 8000 BC ○ Animals domesticatedexcept horses • Agriculture is important because it is easy to tax ○ By calculating the mass of land you have and the climate that season • Dasas (Dark People) ○ Aryans named the Indians cause they had different skin tone ○ Conquered them cause they had superior weapons ○ Dasas were more sophisticated and agriculturally advance Indo-Aryans (or just Aryans) • Lived peacefully with Europeans till 1500 BC • Rein ended 1000BC • Advantages against Indians: horse riding skills, long bows and use of iron • Divided into tribes with each a leader that's like the king/chief • Families ruled by fathers/males • Wealth - cows (divine animals) ○ Horses were also valuable • Hierarchy in age • Daughters were not much valued; accompaniedwith a dowry • Women cannot participate in sacrifices • Only male could inherit • War is glorified • Only conquered the North • Purusha (4 Great Classes) (Sacrifice of the Cosmic Man" ○ Brahman  Priests  Comes from the god's mouth  White ○ Kshatriya  Warriors  Arm ○ Vaishyas  Thigh  80% of the population  80% of the population ○ Only the above 3 are twice-born ○ Shudra  Feet  Were not permitted to hear or study the Vedic hymns  Defined by the Brahmans as servants  Non marshal commoners ○ The fifths (Panchamas)  The untouchables • Gods ○ Indra  Created by Tod Ekam - That One  Warrior god  Red  Could control waves and thunderbolts  Assisted by an obscure stormgod Rudra - Rig Veda form of Shiva  Needs sacrifices  Defeats the night demon Vrita - symbol of the dasas □ Suggested that it was actually a dam ○ Varuna (use to be Rita and later dharma)  Makes everything right  Better than the other gods  Symbolizes justice  King of Universal Order ○ Agni  God of fire  Healer, saviour, defender and destroyer ○ Maya  evil ○ Soma  God of immortality  Gives freedom  Also an intoxicating drink that's drank by Indra ○ Sat (being, positive),Assat (Non-being, chaos, negative) Upanishads (600 - 300 BC) • Written from the Rig Veda (related to sacrifice and ritual (keep gods happy)) (Not on the exam) ○ 1200 Sanskrit poems ○ Instruction manuals ○ Before the Upanishads • Religious scriptures • Made the Moksa (salvation) ○ Release from rebirth, desires ○ All governmentby an order of Karma (not same as Karma yoga) • Dharma (Universal Order) ○ There's Atman and the caste systems • Atman (soul) ○ Brahmans (the universe) (the cosmic soul)  Not the same concept for the 4 classes • Spiritual goal ○ Achieving the radical of liberation or release of the constraint of this world  The constrictions of karma □ Rose from Hindu ○ Rebirth , redeath, rebirth- samsara ○ Mystical knowledge:what is regarded as divine Buddhism Buddhism • Buddha (563 - 483 BC) ○ A Hindu Aryan (550 BC) ○ At age 18, studied with the ascetics but realized it wasn't the way to achieve salvation ○ Broke his fasting by eating congee ○ First started learning in 527 BC (first sermon) ○ At age 35, sat cross legged under Bodhi tree ○ Mara, the demon came to temp him ○ He did not fall for the temptation and entered Nirvana with residue  Nirvana is the distinguishing of the soul ○ Started the wheel of Dharma (law) (later on religion) ○ Died at the age of 80 • 4 Noble Turth 1) Dukha i. Life characterized by suffering - birth, old age, death, sickness, separation from good things, contact with bad things 2) Avidya i. Arising from sorrw ii. Ignorance iii. Hunger for pleasure, fame prestige, sex, and gluttony 3) Controlling Desires i. Knowing you have desires and trying to get rid of them ii. Stop the craving and ignorance and it will stop the sorrow (Nilism) 4) 8 Noble Path/ Noble 8 Fold Path i. Views, Aspiration - Buddhist Wisdom ii. Speech, conduct, livelihood,effort - Morality (Don't kill, steal, etc) iii. Mindfulness, concentration- Buddhist meditation/MentalDiscipline iv. Triple Truth (Is in the Right Views) 1) Sorrowful- attachment to soul will not lead to Nirvana 2) Transient - Everything is changing 3) Soulless (anatta) - When we die, a certain karma is inherited by another being that goes into existence • Karma ○ Intension + act = results • Established the first Monastic Order ○ Sangha ○ Takes 3 vows  Brahmacarya - chastity (no sex)  Ahimsa - Non violence  Aparigraha - poverty (beg for food they only need to survive with) ○ Nuns were admitted into the sangha shortly before he died • Dharma (Moral Law, Buddhist law) Jainism p.52 • Try to do the least harm by taking radical steps • Vardhamana Mahavira (540 - 468 BC) ○ Another kshatriya prince ○ Son of the chief of Jnatrika tribe ○ Like a Buddha, he abandoned his hedonistic life to become a wandering ascetic when he was about 30 years old ○ Founded an order of monks that rejected Vedic and Brahmanic authority ○ Lived with the ascetics called the Nirgranthas (Free from Bonds) who are nudists cause they didn't want to harm the cotton;remained with them for about 10 years ○ After the leader of the group died, he split into his own sect called the Jainas  He practiced naked, self-torture and death by starvationwhich tookhim 13 years to do so - to obtain the surest path of salvation Supposedly the last Jain to attain the pure and perfect peace of tirthankara paradise - ○ Supposedly t
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