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University of British Columbia
Asian Studies
ASIA 100

784 ADcontroversy revolving around Buddhism owing to Dokyo and Empress Shotoku therefore capital city moved from Nara to Nagaoka Things dont go well and nine years later capital moved again to Heian Kyo known today as KyotoKyoto modeled on ChanganHeian Period Kana syllabary is formed burst of literary things Derived sometime during the 800sStrong male culture that tried to communicate in Chinese and syllabary taught to womenSaicho and Tendai Buddhism on Mt Hiei orthodox Mahayana Buddhism Also bases its theology entirely on one particular sutra known as the Lotus sutra Stature of exceptional prominent among all the other sutrasKukai brings back a form of Buddhism from China called shingon meaning true words Japanese translation of the word mantra All physical things are the cosmic body of Buddha every sound is a translation of the speech of the cosmic Buddha every law of the universe is a translation of the mind of Buddhism This Buddhism is esotericHeian Period also great age of literature Two women writers Sei Shonagon and Murasaki Shikibu were in service at the Imperial Court and were therefore at a magnificent position to observe the goings of the court including gossip Sei Shonagon was not afraid to speak her mind Shonagon was often contrasted with ShikibuShikibu writes Tale of Genji that tells the dramatic story of Prince Genji an aristocratHeian Period also standardized the 31 syllable Japanese poem If a man wants to pursue an aristocratic woman he needs to write this kind of poem that is relevant to the season referencing another poem etcAge with popular religious beliefs Strong belief in karmic retribution what goes around comes around At this time there was an intellectual highranking official in government called Sugawara no Michizane He pisses off the Fujiwara family After he is driven from government suddenly there is a lot of earthquakes storms highranking people start dying etc One of the explanations for this is that this is the work of the ghost of Michizane Kitano Tenmangu shrine in Kyoto was dedicated to Michizane In current times Michizane begins to be seen as a god of exam successShoen taxfree state Buddhist monasteries are becoming powerful because they are enjoying tax immunity People start wanting to go into monasteries because they are beginning to become places where people can advance politicallyAmida is a Buddha that becomes a focus of devotion within the major monasteries in the late Heian Period particularly to people who are looking for a more genuine path of spiritual devotionIndian legend says that around 152 BC people are going to enter a period of Mappo and they will be unable to bring out their own salvation Therefore you need a saviour kind of figure Amida BuddhaWith the decline of the Heian Period and the rise of the shoen the Fujiwara familys power declines At a certain point there is an emperor GoDaigo who has very little Fujiwara blood in him Instead of retiring at a young age the emperor remains on the throne until he is an adult and sees his own son taking the throne The emperor then takes Buddhist vows he is taking himself out of the ceremonial duties of a monarch and dedicates himself to helping his son rule This period is called the Period of the Retired MonarchsPeople experienced in the use force arise in the countryside marking the rise of the samurai Taira and Minamoto are the two biggest federation of these fightersChinaSouthern Song Dynasty Capital at Hanzhou had 1 million people large for an ancient cityHanzhou Southern terminus of the Grand Canal linking the two major riversMajor intellectual renovation Neo or new Confucianism Zhu Xi 11301200 AD said that the curriculum of the Books was wrong and that you needed to focus on the teachings of Confucius Analects of Confucius Book of Mencius Doctrine of Mean and Great Learning 8 steps Zhu Xi wrote commentaries on these works to explain his ideasSaid that there was a principle in the universe called Li veins in a piece of jade the pattern of what is supposed to be Li is now thought of as the principle of the material world Eternal unchanging basically good and abstract Similar to Buddhism aspect of learning There is also something else that makes up the universe Chi all matter of energy in the universe has no moralReality is empty and its constant changing nature makes it seem like it doesnt have a durable quality to it
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