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BIOL 111
Chin Sun

111 Whats your genotype Learning outcomes 1 Explain how dominant and recessive alleles of a genotype contribute to phenotypeReadings 6 152157 5 130136Fig 527 p 138 6 145151We generally have two copies of every chromosome One copy comes from our mother and one copy comes from our father This is generally true with most eukaryotic organisms that have some form of sexual reproduction Diploid cells have 2 copies of each chromosome 2n Each pair of chromosomes are homologous In the Fig 518 from your text shown below a human karyotype the number and the types of chromosome is shown where the chromosomes from one human cells are arranged in homologous pairs You are not expected to memorize the term karyotype but you should know what homologous meansKaryotypes may be prepared for a developing fetus after extracting a few cells by amniocentesis to check for any chromosomal abnormalities A normal human chromosome number is 2n 46 In other words there are 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes in total In each of these homologous pairs one chromosome came from the individuals mother and the other came from the individuals father Question For a male which has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome whichparent donated his X chromosome How do you knowHomologous chromosomes know what this word meanshave the same length and with centromeres at the same position they have the same genes same in the sense that both genes serve the same function eg both affects eye colour in the same locationsOne chromosome came from the organisms mother while the other came from organisms father Although both chromosomes have the same genes the DNA sequence of each gene may be different between the two homologous chromosomes These slightly different forms of a gene are called alleles
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