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Module C - Waves and Tides.docx

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BIOL 111
Catherine Ortner

MODULE C Waves and Tideschapter 8 all chapter 9 allLesson 6WavesWater DynamicsHow are waves formed in the surface ocean What key parameters characterize waves online notes waves are energy in motion as energy is transferred to the ocean from a generating force the interface between the water and the air starts to oscillate this oscillation then propagates out from the centre of the disturbance in all directions the oscillations generated on the ocean surface induce an equal and opposing force the restoring force which acts to return the disturbed surface to its original shape or state there are many key parameters that characterize waves crest highest point of the wave trough lower point of the wave equilibrium line where the ocean surface would lie in an undisturbed state wavelength the horizontal distance separating 2 succeeding crests or troughs wave height the vertical distance between the crest and trough amplitude half of the wave height period the time it takes for a waves length to pass a pointClassify and contrast waves according to the generating or disturbing force that creates them pg 231 a disturbing force is the energy that causes ocean waves to form along an airwater interface the movement of air across the ocean surface creates ocean waves along an airair interface the movement of different air masses creates atmospheric waves along a waterwater interface the movement of water of different densities creates internal waves because these waves travel along the boundary between waters of different density they are associated with a pycnocline a generating force is something that causes waves such as storms wind generation requires high wind speed long duration and an appropriately sized fetchWhat forces restore waves On what type of waves do they operate there must be at least one force that pushes or pulls the water surface back to its original flat position restoring forces include gravity surface tension inertiamass conservation forces and dissipative forcesHow are very large wind waves produced What conditions are necessary to develop very large wind waves Where do the largest wind waves occur and why do they occur there pg 237238 as the wind blows over the ocean surface it creates pressure and stress which deforms the ocean surface into ripples also called capillariesas capillary wave development increases the sea surface takes on a rougher
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