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Module B - The World's Oceans.docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 111
Catherine Ortner

MODULE B The Worlds Oceanschapter 5 all chapter 4 allLesson 3WaterSeawaterWhat is the structure of a water molecule How does it explain waters unique properties a water molecule consists of a central oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms which are separated by an angle of about 105 degrees the oxygen side of the molecule is slightly negative and the hydrogen side is slightly positive which gives the molecule an electrical polarity that is dipolar when the hydrogen of one molecule connects to the oxygen of another the two molecules form a hydrogen bond this bond is strong enough to cause water molecules to stick to one another and exhibit cohesion which also contributes to the surface tension of water water has the highest surface tension of any liquid except for mercury water molecules also stick to other molecules and have the ability to reduce the attraction between ions of opposite charges by as much as 80 times when water completely surrounds ions the process is called hydration water is able to dissolve nearly anything which is why its called the universal solvent water is unique because both of its hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the oxygen atom which is a curious bend in the geometry of a molecule see diagram of figure 52What is the significance of waters thermal properties in its role as a regulator of Earths climate processes in order to change the physical state of a compound energy in the form of heat must be added to the molecules in waters solid state ice water is rigid and does not conform to the shape of its container in this state intermolecular bonds are constantly being broken and reformed but the molecules remain firmly attached in waters liquid state water molecules have enough kinetic energy to flow past each other and take the shape of their contained intermolecular bonds are formed and broken at a much greater rate in waters gaseous state water vapor water molecules dont interact with one another except at random collision the molecules in this state flow very freely filling the volume of their container at 0 degrees solid water will melt and liquid water will freeze at 100 degrees gaseous water will condense and liquid water will boil water is unique in this because other similar compounds have a much lower melting and boiling point if this were the case for water all of earths water would boil away heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree centigrade specific capacity is the heat capacity per unit mass of a body waters specific capacity is 1 calorie per gram which is high the thermal properties of water have prevented wide variations in earths temperature
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