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BIOL 112
Jared Taylor

1) Gather material 2) Gather or make parts 3) Gather and transform energy -Chemoheterotrophs – energy from oxidizing organic molecules, C from organic C. -Phototrophs – energy from light, C from CO2. -Chemolithotrophs – energy from oxidizing inorganic molecules, C from CO2. -Catabolism: chemical reaction that the cell uses to produce energy and components for biosynthesis. Catabolic reactions include breaking lactose into glucose and galactose and then breaking these molecules down further. In some of these reactions, the cell will transform the energy in the molecules that are being degraded by trapping it in other molecules such as ATP and electrons are trapped in a molecule called NADH + H^+ (reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide). These reactions also produce intermediates that are used to build cell parts. -Anabolism: chemical reaction that the cell uses to build its components – they require energy, so they are linked to catabolism. -Chemoheterotrophs trap energy by transforming organic molecules such as glucose to a different form. Many of these organisms use chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP. -Phototrophs trap energy from sunlight and use that energy to make ATP. Some species of bacteria are phototrophs. Among these species, some photosynthesize just like plants, but others are very different. The ATP synthesis mechanism that is used is always “chemiosmotic synthesis”. -Chemolithotrophs trap energy by transforming inorganic molecules such FeS2 to a different form. These organisms also use chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP. The fundamentals of how these organisms make ATP are identical to the way plants make ATP. -Organic molecules have a C-H bond. -Electrons can’t exist freely in solution. Therefore, there is always a reduction and oxidation reaction occurring simultaneously. -Yred + Oox  Yox + Xred. -In the electron, the various reduction potentials are organized from most negative at the top to most positive at the bottom. Negative reduction potentials indicate that the energetically favourable reaction is oxidation, not reduction. This arrangement can predict the outcome of an oxidation/reduction reaction. -There are two mechanisms that help the cell synthesize ATP. Substrate level phosphorylation and chemiosmotic synthesis. -Substrate level phosphorylation: 1) A metabolic reaction creates an organic molecule that has a bond to a phosphate group. 2) Phosphate group is transferred directly to ADP in another enzymatic reaction. -Glycolysis is a set of reactions that is found in all organisms including mitochondria and chloroplast. This is the set of reactions that breaks a sex carbon sugar like glucose down into three carbon sugars. -The first stage of glycolysis is “preparatory”, the cell us
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