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Lecture 2

Week 2 - Cell Structure, Composition, and Growth.docx

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BIOL 112
Karen Smith

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Week2CellStructureCompositionandGrowth25OrganicMoleculesTypes of Biologically Important MoleculesMoleculeBuilding BlocksPropertiesprovide structural supportProteinamino acidscatalyze chemical reactions enzymesencode and transmit genetic informationNucleic Acidnucleotidesprovide a source of energysimple sugarsCarbohydratesmake up the cell wall in bacteria plants and monosaccharidesalgae cellulose in plant cell walls all lipids are hydrophobicmake up cell membranesfatty acids bonded to Lipidsother organic molecules store energy longtermact as signalling moleculesMacromolecule a molecule containing a very large number of atomsPolymer a complex organic molecule made up of repeating simpler units joined by covalent bondsTypes of Covalent BondsPeptide Bond links the carbon atom in the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the nitrogen atom in the amino group of an amino acidPhosphodiester Bond joins the 5 phosphate group in one nucleotide to the sugar unit 3 hydroxyl in another links successive nucleotides and forms the backbone of nucleic acidsGlycosidic Bond attaches one monosaccharide to another261TwoProkaryoticDomainsBacterial CellsEukaryotic Cellsusually unicellularmay be unicellular or multicellularno membranebound nuclei membranebound nucleus nuclear transcribed mRNA is immediately membrane allows for more complex
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