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L10 Cell Cycle & Mitosis

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 121
Greg Bole

Biology 121-224. January 31 to February 3 , rd 2014 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Reading: Ch. 11: 234-243, 248-251 Learning Objectives: 1) Determine whether eukaryotic cells are haploid, diploid or polyploid. 2) Illustrate with simple diagrams how cells produce daughter cells during mitosis. 3) Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle, how the cycle is regulated and how errors in regulation can lead to cancer. A) Cell Division (mitosis, meiosis) Self reproduction – the “instructions” in our model are coded in the DNAin the form of chromosomes and the “object” that is being replicated is the cell. Chromosomes and DNA Apair of chromosomes - Double helix (spiral) - Sugar phosphate on the side - Adenine Thymine, Guanine Cytosine - Base pair - Length of chromosomes in units of base pairs (BP) - Gene is a sequence of BP, a sequence of DNA Karyotype - Picture of all the chromosomes “ genome” - Human genomes, 23 different chromosomes 46 total chromosomes. Mitosis • Division of the genetic material in the nucleus that produces daughter cells Genetically identical to the parent cell. • Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction and is involved only in the production of Somatic (body) cells. – not the reproductive Meiosis • Division of the genetic material in the nucleus to produce daughter cells with Half the amount of hereditary material found in the parent cell. • Involved only in the production of Gametes (eggs and sperm); it is the basis of sexual reproduction and genetic inheritance. Fun FACT! Salamander has the most number of chromosomes of any organisms B) The Cell Cycle What is cancer? Cancer cells differ from normal cells:  Divide when they should not divide  Invade surrounding tissue  Move to other locations in the body  Out of control cell division Phases of the Cell Cycle • Mitotic (M) phase - Division of the cells (PMAT)+ C • Interphase Daughter cells First Gap Phase (G1) - Organelles replicate and additional cytoplasm DNAsynthesis (S) - Chromosomes duplicate (chromatid) - Same number of chromosomes but more DN
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