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Biol 121- 2010.01.29- Genetics- Asexual, Sexual Reproduction, Meiosis (Ch. 12).docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 121
Carol Pollock

Biol 121 225 Freeman 24355 Ch 12Jan 29 10 Define fertilization process of uniting sperm and egg in sexual reproduction SR Embryo cells in a newly growing offspring all the cells are products of mitotic divisions from the first nucleus that formed at fertilization Gametes reproductive cells sperm or egg haploid 1n1 set of chromosomes Define meiosis nuclear division that leads to a halving of chromosome number precedes formation of eggs and sperm in animals Sex chromosome autosome sex chromosome is the chromosome associated w sex of the individual autosomes are nonsex chromosomes Homologous chromosomes same proportion same sizeshape are pairs of sex chromosomes or autosomes also known as homologs homologous chromosomes carry the same genes but may have diff alleles Define gene section of DNA that influences one or more hereditary traits in an individual Allele different versions of the same gene Karyotype number and types of chromosomes present Diploid doubleform have two versions of each type of chromosome diploid organisms have two alleles of each geneone on each of the homologous pairs of chromosomes Chromosome number in chromosome number in each cell is reduced during meiosis meiosis results in haploid cells Brief summary of meiosis I the homologs in each chromosome pair separate from each other one homolog goes to one daughter cell the other homolog goes to the
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