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Biol 121- 2010.03.03- Genetics- Eukaryotic Gene Expression (Ch. 18, 21).docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 121
Professor
Carol Pollock

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Biol 121 225 Freeman Ch 18 21Mar 3 10 Genetics 11Eukaryotic Gene Expression Differentiation is the process by which cells specialize in function for example a cell can become a neuron nerve cell a smooth muscle cell or a blood cell WBC or RBC Stem cells stem cells are cells that have yet to differentiatethey are able to become any type of cell Source they can be found in bone marrow in adults they can also be found in embryos embryonic stem cells Where can control of gene expression 1 Chromatincondensationif DNA is condensed RNAP cannot access and occur in eukaryotes therefore transcription cannot occur 2 Transcriptionwhere most control occurs with regulatory proteins 3 Alternate splicinga process by which not only introns are removed but also selected exons during RNA spicingthis way many different mRNAs may be translated into different proteinstherefore one gene can code for multiple proteins in humans 80 genes are alternatively spliced Cancer uncontrolled cell growth Caused by caused by1 Defect in cell cycle control2 Mutation that knocks out key genes tumour suppression genes are the brakes on the cell cycle to avoid abnormal growth protooncogenes genes
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