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Biol 121- 2010.04.07- Ecology- Demograpy and Population Growth (Ch. 52).docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 121
Carol Pollock

Biol 121 225 Freeman 11731183 Apr 7 10 Population Ecology how to study population ecology is the study of how and why the number of individuals in a population change over time look at distribution patterns measure changes in abundance and distribution identify causes of these changes What is a population a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time Characteristics of populations individuals in one population tend to rely on the same resources ie Food water nesting sites they are influenced by similar environmental factors they behave in a similar way they have a high likelihood of interbreeding How what terms used to describe abundance populations distribution what areas they are in and how many population density number per unit area pattern of spacing in habitat 3 a clumped eg a few schools of fish b Uniform eg penguins c Random eg trees Demography is the study of vital statistics that affect population size the number of individuals depends on 4 births deaths immigration and emigration emigration is leaving How to measure population density count the whole population most accurate but time consuming sample eg quadrats index of population size indirect counting eg count nests burrows droppings marked recapture method traps placed in study area trapped animals are marked with tags bands or tracking devices then allow some time for them to mix randomly with the unmarked population recapture set traps a second time and look at the proportion of recaptured animals Ntotal population Problems 1 Individuals leaving or entering the population 2 Probability of catching individuals might not have been the same on both stndthe 1 and 2 times can be due to different setup or environmental change or perhaps intelligencelearning behaviour of the species 3 Experimenter bias 4 Loss of eggs 5 Location What affects change in population size 1 Survivorship 3 2 Fecundity 3 Role of life history 1 1 Survivorship how many individuals of each age come out alive after each year how likely is it that individuals survive to the next year
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