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Genetics Intro.docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 121
Carol Pollock

Biol 121 225 Freeman 265-276 (Ch. 13) Feb. 5, 10 Hereditary -inheritance, or transmission of traits from parents to offspring Trait -any characteristic of an individual, ranging from overall height to primary structure of a particular membrane protein Model organism -an appropriate model organism in order to study hereditary (transmission of traits) -desired characteristics? -for Mendel, it was Pisum sativum (pea plant) -model organism is a species where individuals are:  Small  short-lived  inexpensive to care for  able to produce large numbers of offspring  easy to manipulate experimentally -therefore, can continue experiments over several generations and to collect data from a large number of individuals -experimental results from using model organisms applied to other spp Two additional features of the pea 1) Can control which parents are involved in mating that are good for experiments 2) Can arrange matings between individuals that differed in easily recognizable traits such as flower colour/seed shape Genetics -branch of biology that focuses on the inheritance of traits Phenotype -observable features of an individual Pure line -a pure line consists of individuals that produce offspring identical to themselves when self-pollinated or crossed to another member of the pure-line population Hybridd -offspring from matings b/t true-breeding parents that differ in 1+ traits Parental generation -adults used in an initial experimental cross F1 and F2 generations -F1 is the progeny of the parental generation (or offspring), F2 is progeny of F1 Dominance and recessiveness -these terms identify only which phenotype is observed in individuals carrying two different genetic determinants (alleles) Gene -the hereditary determinant for a trait (e.g. gene for seed shape) Allele -a version of a particular gene (may be dominant or recessive) -different alleles are responsible for the variation in the traits Mendel studied Genotype -alleles found in a particular individual Phenotype -physical traits, affected by the individual’s genotype Principle of segregation
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