1. Describe, using biogeographic examples, how physical (e.g., topography, cli-
mate, plate tectonics) and biological factors (dispersal, habitat invasion, com-
petition) can aﬀect the distribution of species on earth.
2. Explain how physical factors determine seasonality, daylight and rainfall pat-
terns and how these in turn shape biological communities.
3. Explain how energy ﬂows through and how matter (especially C, N, H2O,
etc) is cycled within ecosystems. Discuss major sources, sinks and interac-
tions between nutrients and water in diﬀerent ecosystems.
4. Distinguish primary from secondary (or tertiary) productivity and from con-
sumption and decomposition. Explain how they relate to one another energy
ﬂow and nutrient cycling.
5. Distinguish major categories of organismal interaction (e.g., sexual repro-
duction, competition, predation, parasitism), and how they relate to energy
or information ﬂow.
6. Illustrate population growth using simple mathematical models.
7. Discuss impacts of human population growth and resource consumption on
biodiversity and ecological stability. Discuss potential role of conservation
biology to oﬀset these impacts.
1. Determine whether cells are haploid or diploid, and which stage of meiosis or
mitotis is involved based on disposition of chromosomes during cell divisions.
2. Illustrate chromosomes through meiosis and mitosis and, using hypothetical
alleles if relevant, trace the ﬂow of information through these processes.
3. Explain basic mechanisms for dominance, incomplete dominance and codom-
inance, based on gene dosage, distinguishing clearly between phenotype and
4. Given data from experimental crosses, pedigrees or simple word problems,
infer mode of inheritance (e.g., number of genes, dominance, linkage, sex
linkage) and calculate probabilities of various outcomes to such crosses.