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Respiratory - notes 2 (continued).docx

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BIOL 153
Paul Hewitt

Gas Exchanges in the BodyDaltons Law of Partial Pressurestates that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixturethe pressure exerted by each gas or its partial pressure is directly proportional to its percentage in the total gas mixtureHenrys Lawstates that when a mixture of gases comes in contact with a liquid each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure Therefore the greater the concentration of a gas in the mixture the more and faster it will go into a solutionshould the partial pressure of a gas become greater in the liquid than in the gas phase some of the gas molecules will return to the gas phase Therefore the direction and amount of gas movements are determined by the partial pressures of the gas in the two phases the volume of the gas that will dissolve in a liquid at any given partial pressure is proportional to the solubility of the gas in the liquid Among the gases found in air carbon dioxide is most soluble oxygen is only 120 as soluble as CO2 and nitrogen is practically insoluble in blood plasmathe solubility of any gas in water or plasma decreases with increasing temperatureComposition of Alveolar Gasesair is composed of nitrogen 79 oxygen 21 carbon dioxide 004the alveoli contain much more carbon dioxide 5 and much less oxygen 14 these differences are largely due to the fact that gas exchanges are occurring in the lungs B oxygen is diffusing from the alveoli into the pulmonary blood and carbon dioxide is diffusing in the opposite direction with each tidal inspiration alveolar gas is actually a mixture of newly inspired air and air that remained in the respiratory pathway between breaths
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