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Lymphatic System.docx

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BIOL 153
Robert Harris

Lymphatic System June 22 , 2012 - Wherever you have a capillary bed, you have lymphatic bed - Lymphatic beds take up excess fluid from capillary beds = to larger and larger lymphatic vessels = tissues= nodules = nodes = tonsils = eventually back to blood system  Lymphatic nodules/nodes = early detection of pathogens  Tonsils = very specialized type of lymph node  Spleen = isn’t technically part of the system, has a huge number of lymphocytes and macrophages do not ignore bacteria if they “see” them, all the blood goes through spleen once a day so the spleen performs a immune function  Thymus gland = maturation of the lymphocytes - High concentration of lymph nodes where the inside and outside environment is very similarly/coming closer together - Lymphatic Vessels  No active pumping mechanism – fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries very easily with a series of one way valves - Functions of the lymphatic system  Fluid balance: ecess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries and becomes lymph  Fat absorption: absorption of fat and other substances from digestive tract  Defense: microorganism and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen - In the lymph nodule there are regions where there are only lymphocytes, and any pathogen that comes in through the fluid they attack it - Mouth = major route pathogens make it into the body - Afferent = into, efferent = away - We only have one aorta (most vertebrates have two - If the lymphatic system is blocked up, the fluid builds up in all parts of the bodies (massive bloating) = gravity therapy, deep tissue massage to push the fluid out of the interstitial spaces - Spleen  Located in left superior side of abdomen (can be ruptured in traumatic abdominal inguries resulting in bleeding, shock, death)  3 regions of blood flow velocities ~ trabecular artery- relatively large for it’s size ~ in the capillaries the blood is moving very fast, increasing pressure against the membranes = old blood cells can’t take it and become damaged ~ the blood then goes through the venous sinus = larger than the capillaries so when blood goes here, it is slower, less pressure. Also here, the damaged blood cells are taken out - White pulp: lymphocytes live here, where they may leave to go collect the damaged red blood cells and break them out once back in white pulp - Red pulp: where the blood is filled, damaged blood cells are taken away Thymus - Plays very important role, if the thymus is compromised that person will be effected negatively in regards to immune quality - T lymphocytes - Lymphocytes: originate in the long bones within the bone marrow, type of immune cell Immunity - Ability to defend against foreign substances/pathogens - There are a lot of responses that can be involved (from simple to very complex) - Innate/nonspecific resistance: Mechanical: prevent or remove pathogenic microbes Chemical signals: attract immune system cells into the area so foreign microbes can be attacked Cells: Will develop immunity towards old things that you had before (ex. Chicken pox) - If a foreign material gets into the body (from wood splinter to microbe) 1. Inflammation (localized) is the first line of defense First place where we see innate immunity is NIK (natural killer cell) Is looking for cells with the right cell surface antigens with the wrong proportions or cancer cells or 1. Recognition and adhesion 2. Realigment of Golgi apparatus 3. Secretion of perforin 4. lysis of abnormal cell Classical Pathway - start: involves antibodies binding to the surface of a foreign tissues - compliment protein one is when two antibodies are linked together = this complimentary protein 1 takes CP 2 and 4 cut CP
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