BIOL 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 31: Carbonation, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Lyase
Course CodeBIOL 201
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Review: Glycolysis Yield
Summary of net yield during Glycolysis so far (without the involvement of oxygen) per glucose
molecule: 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate
Characteristic features of an SLP reaction set: A redox reaction to make a HEI, followed by a group
transfer reaction to make ATP
Discussion Question: Why do cells need the reactions of anaerobic metabolism when oxygen isn’t
To recycle cofactors so that glycolysis can continue to happen and thus continue to make ATP.
In order to make ATP you need to have NAD+ – NADH needs to be recycled so that glycolysis can
continue (SLP reactions)
Reaction 11: Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
Glyco-6 (step 6 of Glycolysis) needs NAD+ as a cofactor
The NADH produced during Glyco-6 is NOT used directly by the ETC as
an electron donor for Complex I in the mitochondria.
- Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
- ETC is in the inner mitochondrial membrane
- NADH cannot pass across the membrane
NADH cannot pass through the IMM, as the molecule itself is too large for passive diffusion, and
there are no transporters present.
Under aerobic conditions, NADH from glycolysis can be used to make ATP via two pathways:
1. Glycerol-3-Phosphate (L3P) Shuttle
- DHAP from Glyco-4 can be converted into L3P, using NADH
produced by glycolysis
- L3P can then transfer the electron picked up from NADH to the
enzyme-bound electron carrier, FAD, forming FADH2
2. Conversion between Malate and Oxaloacetate involves
dehydrogenase and NAD+/NADH/H+
Note: NADH from glycolysis cannot be directly transferred to matrix for
ETC usage. Instead electrons are transferred to intermediates that can
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