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Lecture September 27+29 - Gods.odt

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Classical Studies
CLST 105
Ronald Kroeker

The Gods 1. The Olympians 1. Most important set of Gods 2. Live on Mount Olympus 3. Offspring of Rhea & Cronus 1. Hestia (Vesta) 1. Oldest of the Goddesses 2. Goddess of the hearth 3. Religiously important, but not present in many myths 4. Virgin Goddess 2. Hades (Pluto, Dis) 1. God of the underworld 2. Not active in myths, but important 3. Steals Persephone for a wife 3. Poseidon (Neptune) 1. God of the sea 2. Highly respected 3. Fairly serious 4. Unpredictable 5. Called 'earth-shaker' 6. In many of the well known myths (Iliad, Odyssey) 7. Often loses competitions with other gods/goddesses 8. Attribute: Trident 4. Demeter (Ceres) 1. Goddess of grain, riches from the ground 2. Her daughter is stolen by Hades, she withholds grain from the land 3. Elyusinian mysteries 5. Hera (Juno) 1. Shrewish 2. Nag 3. Vindictive 4. Took out her wrath on Zeus' partners and their children 5. Majestic 6. Goddess of women, family, childbirth 6. Zeus (Jupiter, Jove) 1. Attributes: Thunderbolt, eagle 2. If eagle is on the right, good things happen. If eagle is on the left, Zeus will smite someone 3. Upholder of justice 4. 'Zeus Xenios' – Zeus as protector of host and guests 5. Human foibles – Threatens other gods, boasts 6. Aristocrats justified their power by saying they were descended from gods, especially Zeus. They allowed stories of Zeus mating with mortals because it allowed them to say this. 7. Limited in power 1. Iliad – Thetus reminds Zeus that she and a giant freed him when several other gods tied him up 2. Aphrodite had power even over Zeus 3. Sarpedon – Son of Zeus, hero at Troy, fighting with Trojans, Zeus tries to stop his death but Hera says it is fated for him to die so Zeus doesn't intervene 8. Supreme in power 9. Only trust Zeus if he nods, not if he just says he will do something 4. Offspring of Zeus and... 1. Hera 1. Ares (Mars) 1. God of war 2. Violence, destruction 3. Was wounded by a hero, went back to Olympus to complain, Zeus felt no sympathy for him 4. Mars was more important to the Romans thanAres was to the Greeks 5. Attributes: Spear, shield 2. Hephaestus (Vulcan) 1. Close to Hera 2. Some myths say he came from Hera alone 3. Trys to protect Hera from Zeus by ending their fights 4. Craftsman god 5. He makes a new shield forAchilles, with great detail 6. Makes gold
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