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Lecture 6

CLST 232 Lecture 6: CLST 232 LECTURES 6-FINAL
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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 232
Professor
Huemoeller
Semester
Winter

Description
Wednesday, January 4, 2017 Wednesday, January 4th 
 
 Polybius:
 -wrote about rome 
 -greek philosopher, one of the people rome conquered 
 -167 BC he was taken hostage and moved to the city 
 -he was an elite man, lived in luxury, wrote a work about the history of rome and how they achieved such a great emperor 
 -his whole life was dictated by rome 
 -the way he talks about rome echoes how we talk about it today 
 
 Netflix Rome: 
 -really repetitive 
 -the biggest empire the world had seen at this point 
 -infastructure: aquaducts, roads, responsible for technological advances 
 -conquered other people 
 -1 in 5 live in empire 
 -over 50 million people, 1 million in rome 
 -ruled by marcus aurelius (at this point) for a decade, military emperor to defend empire, territory spans thousands of miles 
 -successful, distinguished philosopher 
 -over last century it has become most advanced city, rise to modern era 
 -global super power, proficient military forces 
 -blood thirsty but civilized 
 
 3 focus questions: 
 -how and why did rome expand from a tiny village to empire 
 -what did it mean to be part of the roman empire 
 -how and why did the empire fall 
 1 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 
 what we know and how we know what we know 
 www.oup.com/us/boatwright 
 
 outline while reading 
 keep running list of names, places, and terms 
 become familiar with the mediterranean Monday, January 30th 
 Threats from Outside and Within
 
 **second map quiz on Wednesday, instructions on Connect 
 
 introduction to Early 1st century BCE: 
 -moving forward now into 100-78 BC, the turn of the century 
 -will cover the fall of the republic before the midterm 
 
 Big Question: 
 -now rome owns all of this territory, who gets to benefit from it 
 -we find around 100 BCE all these different groups contesting to who gets piece of pie, benefit from empire, those who fought to aquire, who govern, who live in it 
 competing interests of: 
 -Senators- inherited wealth not directly involved through trade (maybe through intermediaries) 
 -Equestrians, also known as Equites, or knights, wealthy elite but not necessarily office holding, associated with commercial interests 
 -Army - may or may not be tied to an individual magistrate 
 -Roman people - the plebs 
 -Allies - the subjugated people, living in peninsular italy but not citizens 
 
 2 e t a n e s y b d e v o r p p a g n i e b s w a l a c i n h c e t o n h t i w y d o b y r o s i v d a t a h t d e b r u c i c c a r G e h t , e c n e u e h t f o s r e d a e l s a s n o i t i s o p s e n o t u e T d n a i r b m i C ; h t r o n e h t ) a c i r f A h t r o N ( a i d i m u N s u i n e g y r a t i l i m d n a r a e l c n u o s e m i t g n o l a r o f s k d a h t u b e l p o e p e r o m t i u r c e r n i o j o n e h w m e h t r o f e l b i s n o p s e r w o n s i e h o s m r a f o t k c a b o g n o e l t t e s o t t n e m e r i t e r t a d n a l t c e p x e d n u o r a o g d n a l e r o m t e g o t s t n a r g n i h t i w g n i g n o l e b f o e s n e s g n i y m r a e h t o t h c u m o s d e i l p p u s , t h g i r n e z i t i c o n e s l e g n i h t y r e v e s e c a l p e e g a u g n a l n a i l a t i d e z i r e t c a r a h c d a h t a h t y t i e h t n i n e z i t i c f o e l c r i c r e s o , e t o v o t y t i c o t e m o c d e l y t s e f i l e c a f o t e c a f e h t m o y u g d a e h s a , d n o c e s s a w e h t u b r o t c i s i h t h s u p r e h t r u f o t y r o t s s i s e s u , s u i r a M o t t m o r f y a w a e k a t o t , w o n t l a e d g i b a n w o d s e k a t d n a e m o r n o m o r f y t i c e d i s t u o s n a r e t e v s s e t a t s r o f , m e t s y s n a m o r e h t n Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -used veterans to seize control of city 
 -After he's dictator, he lays that down, takes up consulship, ends after year and retires, gods to villa, drinks and writes memoirs 
 -like i have set rome back in order and I'm done 
 -never seen a general voluntarily lay down power Wednesday, Feb 1st 
 
 Pompey: The rise of Romes first real war lord 
 -goes down in history as the predecessor to Caesar, who brings about the fall of the republic 
 -much of the action of the early first cent is dictated by threats from both within and abroad 
 -the rise of someone like pompey dictated by having these enemies in order to est his power 
 -eastern enemies allow him to establish a base of clients and dependents there 
 
 Setting the stage: 
 Sertorious: 
 -homegrown civil war type enemies 
 -after social wars and sullas death there are threats emerging in different types of Rome 
 -similar in a sense to the social war 
 -Sertorious in spain, was a roman general himself who defects and decides to join in the fighting of the Lousitanians, who rose up again 
 -this war, like the other spanish wars go on for a long time, unpopular, inscription, spain representing resource and human resource draining pit 
 -its ongoing, no generals can finish so they look to Pompey, Sulla’s second in command when Sulla marched on rome 
 11 t i s t a h t , e m o r n i n a m y h g n i h t y n a h p m u i r t d n o c e s s a h e h e s u a c e b , e n o d e w o t o n s e n o l a n r e t x e n g i e r o f a n a h t n o i t a v O / o i t a v O n a u o y s g n i r b s r e t c a r a h c e s e h t o t t 2 4 e c i f f o d e t a e p e r n e e w t e b l y r a n i d r o a r t x e g n i m o c e b m o r f e l s e v l e s m e h t r o f m e h t e s u b a s a s e d a c e d r e v o e s r o w d n a e s r o w e m o h e m o r e r e h w , t s a e n i s e c n a i l l a e g a n a m o t s g n i k t n e g n i k r o w s e i m e n e s e m o d d i d h g i h d n a s r o t e a r P k o o t , s p i s e t a r i p e h t t a h t s a w e m o r g n i , t i n i e c a f s e m o R g n i b b u r t u b e m o r t a e s o n r i e h t Wednesday, January 4, 2017 ongoing problem for decades done 
 -not a lot of sources about what actually happened, but he didn't necessarily defeat them militarily but made a treaty, offered them land and settled them as farmers 
 -all these people made a deal with him as an individual not the state of rome, and now they have an allegiance to him alone not the state 
 
 Pompey vs. Mithradates in East: 
 -rome isn't exerting a strong control and allows Mithridates to gain foothold 
 -King Mithridates is a crazy guy, originally a king in Pontus along the black sea 
 -born as a prince, early facts of his life are fantastical, stories follow other mythical figures 
 -mother tries to poison him, escapes and lives among peasants, lives in wilderness, rises up even though he's a king 
 -we don't know how much is true 
 -eventually he goes back and seizes control of kingdom 
 -is allied with Armenia, and bordering on the roman protectorates (not provinces yet) Galacia, Capadiaca, ect. 
 -Mithridates is in a position where he's rubbing up against rome 
 -He takes over the entire east, is bold and powerful 
 -does this not only militarily but diplomatic action, tapping into developing hatred for Rome 
 -know about this because of an incident in 88, called the 
 Asian Vespers: 
 -Mithridates wrote secretly to magistrates that on the 30th day they should set upon all romans and italians in their towns, kill them and take their goods 
 -all romans living in asia are slaughtered, must have been a lot of hatred for rome in this area, not in full control but was seen as threat 16 h s i l b a t s i e r o t e m o r o t k c a b s e t a d i r h t i M s i l a r e n e g r e h t o t u b s e t a r i p r o f d e s u t o n o s s l o o t t h g i r e h Wednesday, January 4, 2017 scrape it smooth 
 -they would attach sheets on end to each other and make a scroll/ called a papyrus role 
 
 ink:
 -used lots of different things, dregs of wine, charcoal, squid ink 
 -have few remaining ink pots from ancient world 
 -stylus would be a reed 
 -these scrolls are rolled up and stored in cubby like holes 
 -tags on the end marked what the scroll was 
 
 -Papyrus mostly just survives in Egypt, Jerusalem, and Herculaneum 
 -they survive the best here because of the dry desert like condition 
 
 Egypt:
 -Oxyrhynchus called Waste paper city 
 -down the nile quite aways, city was basically abandoned and no one ever touched the giant trash heaps around the city, and they were basically preserved in tact once a layer was covering it 
 -Grenfell and Hunt in 1800’s went on a mission to dig through the trash heap, discovered it full of Papyrus 
 -they hired tonnes of locals to dig with them, they pulled out more than 500,000 fragments 
 -they realized once they have uncovered the top layer of soil and sand they became very fragile, would basically disintegrate in the environment 
 -shipped them to Oxford, only 5% have been translated so far 
 -Papyrology is a small and difficult discipline 
 
 Herculaneum: 
 -seaside town, lots of villas 
 19 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -one called villa of the Papyri which had a library in it 
 -found tonnes of Papyri, 2000 
 -the heat blast from the volcano carbonized them, and excavators were originally tossing them out cause they thought it was burnt wood 
 -but then they noticed the ends of the scroll, 
 -someone invented a machine which slllowwwly un-stretched them 
 -they were all blackened and shiny 
 -made some advances in being able to read them, using magnospectrometry to take pictures and see the text under the burnedness 
 -another method: put the unstretched ones in a ct scanner, produced an image of the structure of the scroll without unwrapping them, but it could not read ink so it was pointless 
 -new technique: x ray phase contrast image, can read some of the text 
 
 Types of Text containe
 d: -private letters 
 -imperial decrees 
 -petitions to the local governments, usually about legal redress 
 -private legal documents (wills, marriage contracts) 
 -Inventory 
 -Poetry 
 -Medical Texts 
 -Everything! 
 
 Identify:
 1.
 -Author: a wife who was robbed by Taorsenouphis 
 -Audience: a jury/ official who dealt with the judicial realm 
 -Purpose: something to do with a court case/ filing a claim to bring someone to court 
 20 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 -what can you learn about Roman-Egyptian Society: people rob people. There is a legal system, she has the chance of being successful in this petition. The fact she mentions her husband was away points out she was in a vulnerable position. Women are often part of violent crimes. Points out the crime was committed at night, which is especially bad 
 
 2.
 -Author: a mother writing to his son 
 -Audience: his son 
 -Purpose: a letter to check up on his son’s health 
 -what can you learn about Roman-Egyptian Society: personalize people 
 
 3.
 -Author: Aurelius Asclepiades 
 -Audience: Aurelius Theon, 
 -Purpose: looking to hire a dancer and discussing pay, a contract 
 -what can you learn about Roman-Egyptian Society: there is still a barter system in place ,could track economic elements 
 ▯ Wednesday, February 8th
 
 Midterm Format: 
 
 1. ID’s 
 -focus on lecture and readings 
 -around 4-5 sentences each 
 -a full answer will include: Approx date, short description of it, a longer explanation of its significance for this class, requires analysis and is therefore the most important 
 2. Short Answer 
 21 -focus on lecture 
 3. Longer answers 
 -focus on critical thinking 
 -not asking for information delivered in class but put together things we've talked about 
 
 Civil War: 
 
 Struggle for Control: 
 -aftermath of Caesar’s assassination in March 15th 44 BC -a lot of myth around that moment, famous partly because of shakespeare 
 -one myth is that as he was dying Caesar turned to Brutus and said “And you, Brutus” point being their families were connected, he was Brutus’ mentor, yet he joined to conspiracy -the assassination is one taking place between people connected in all respects, only few leading families, all connected and grew up together 
 -decided to kill man who is probably their friend, felt this strongly about it 
 -didnt plan for aftermath, was a lot of chaos -point of assassination was not for Conspirators to seize power but to return to republic, which hadn't actually functioned for a while, have had leading men guiding things for a long time -there was an understanding within senate as why this happened, the plebs didn't feel the same way 
 t e s p u y l e m e r t x e , m i h d e v o l - -Conspirators= Liberatores 
 -the way they presented themselves was as liberators, liberating the state from the tyranny of one person, granting freedom back to everyone 
 -a coin was minted with face of brutus, a reference to his ancestor 22 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 Brutus who was one of the men who expelled the last king of Rome 
 -was important that brutus be part of the conspiracy because he carried aura of true republican and king slayer 
 -coin indicates the freeing from Tyranny 
 -complex political principles at stake here, they didn't do a good job of promoting and explaining these to the people 
 
 -Aftermath shows 3 leading figures: 
 Mark Antony:
 - co-consul of caesar, most obvious choice after Caesar’s death, his right hand man in the Gallic and Civil wars against Pompey, military accolades, famous for partaking in Bacchic activities, doesn’t have the gravitas, in it for the glory, money, power, not political ideals 
 -at caesars death it is him who is clearly in charge, but problematic because of his alliance with caesar 
 -interesting that they didn't assassinate him, but he doesn’t try to oppose the Conspirators 
 -they meet, reconcile, says he wont prosecute and start fresh 
 -he doesnt hold true to this, let him hold a public funeral for caesar which was a big mistake, underestimate publics affection for him 
 -he rials up the people, lifts up Caesars bloody tunic and waves it around 
 -There was a comet after Caesars death and put forward it was Caesars soul ascending to the gods 
 -promoting his image of a divinity, and his image in general as someone who loved the people and the people should take vengeance 
 -read caesars will, donates property to the plebs and gives money to each individual 
 -works to Antony’s advantage because conspirators are now worried by antagonism to them and people rallying benind Antony 
 
 23 Wednesday, January 4, 2017 Octavian: 
 -one thing in the will besides gift is a claus that adopts his grandnephew as his son, and his heir 
 -not clear that caesar meant to be his political heir, even though thats what happens in the end 
 -to adopt a male relative was typical for aristocrats without children, wasn't a strange move but took on great significance because octavian makes it 
 -only 18 when Caesar dies, comes rushing back to scene 
 -everyone underestimates him, doesn’t think it will be a problem 
 -Antony isn't happy but not so concerned 
 
 Cicero:
 -third person in power and also not concerned about Octavian 
 -calls him a child to be praised, honoured and disposed of 
 used him as a pawn to defeat Antony 
 -Cicero was a leading senator, also a Novus Homo (new man) meaning none of his fam had office previously 
 -he is an intellectual, not military, known as a strong republican 
 -believes in republic and balance of power 
 -He didn't like caesar but didn't join the Conspiracy 
 -he also is a person, chooses who to ally himself with who he think will be successful 
 -he supports the conspirators, meaning he's in good position, not tainted by conspiracy 
 -he is who the senate looks to as their leader 
 -Antony was military and never politician like Cicero had, much of the Senate hated Antony 
 -he chooses to use this power of senate and prop up octavian in order to take away power from Antony 
 -to do this he delivers set of speeches called the Philippics in the 24 e t a n e s y b d e i f i t a r r o l a i c i f l a e p p a t s e t a e k a t o t d e e n e c a l u p o p f o s e h s d e e c c u s s r i v m u i r T , a i n o d e c a M n d e t r o p s n a r t g n i e b m o r f n i s l a e D n a i v a t c O o s t s a e n i y n o d e l i x e s a w e h o s s u e n o g l l a e r a s u t u r B , a r t a p o e l d e r a e f / d e r i m d a / d e k i l e v a h d l u o w ? m i h t s n i a g a y c a r i p s n o c n a m o r d n a e r u g i f n a i n e h t a o w t e h t s e r a p m o c d n a c i h p a r g o e g e h t s s a l c e h t f o f ) s r o r e p m E ( s r a s e a C , t a e o t s e k i l e h t a h w , e f i l n a m r o f t n s e o d , s s o e v i t c e j b o e r o m h c u m s i , y e h t n e h w o s e r e w y e h t n a h t d a b t a h t t ' n s a w t i e h t s d r a w o t s g n i l e e f r i e h t d n a r e d n u s a w s u t a t s r r a s e a C s h c r a n o M t c e , s u h r r y P , a r t a p o e l C ? s e r u g o t e v a h t ’ n s e o d e h , c i l b u p e r e r e h t o n a y b d e n e t a e r h t e l p o e p o n d n a t n i a s e r c a s e r a h t a e d d n a e f i l f o r e w o p g n i d a e l , s r e h t a f l l a f o r e h t a g i b a h c u s d e e n t ' n o d y e h l o r t n o c s i h r e d n u s n a r e t e v f e t a n e s e h t o t y r t n e f o n o i t a g i t s e v n i l a r e d a e l l a r o m d n a r e h t n i e s i r r e w o p a g n r o s r e b m e m e t a n e s a r o f d e z i l i b a t s n e e b y b y l t c e r i d d e n r l o r t n o c g n i k a t l l l a y o l a n i a g d y t i c e h t f o r o e c i l o p e h t , s e l i g i v e l p o e p y h t l a e w d n a , d n i k e h t , s g n i h t f o , s e l i g i v e h t f o , y t i c e h t e h t m o r f n e k a t s e t a v o n e r , s t c u d a u q a s t n e m u n o m d n a e g a i t o n d i d d n a b s u h a f i , e c n e a s a d e t u c e s o r p e b d l u o w e h n e z i t i c e h t f o d l o h e s u o h e t s i h n o s g n i h t k o o t o h w r a s e a c s u t i c a T t o l a t e g e w o s r e t c a r a h c s t i b d i t d i o l b a t , e y l e t i n i f e d s i n r a w n e e b s a h n o i t i s o p s i h t c e f e r p n a i r o t e a r p e h t d n a , e , e t a n e s e h t s a t t e d n e v l a n o s r e p e v a h l a r e n e g l e s u a c e b k r o w t n s e o d t u b a y b d e d e e c c u s e r a s n a i d u a l C , r o r e p m e t x e n e b o t n o i t i s o p d n o i t a n e h s e s u a c e b s t i d i a s s i t i , r e w o p l a i r e p m i f o r e f s n a n i a t r e c o t t a h t s t n a r g t s u y t i r o h t u a s u o i g i l e r f o t r o s e s n e s a e n i l n i t x e n e v i g o s p i h s n o i t a l e r , n e m d e e r f d n a o t y t l a y o l r i e h t s d e e n , t n a t r s e m i t y n a m d e i r r s u i r e b i T n e h t , a p p i r g A n e h t s u t s u g u a r e h t a f r e h c i l b u p e r e h t n i e r o d l o h e s u o h e h t n i n e l l a , y t i l i t r e f d n a e c a e p y l i m a f l a i r e p m i g n i t o m o y l i m a f n o s s e e i d l l a r a s e a c e c i o h c t s r i f t o n , g n d n a e v i g d l u o w e t a n e s e h t o s e d a c a o s l a t u b r o s s e c c u s n e s o h c c i t e l h t a , g n u o y , r a l u p o p o o ) s d e v e i r t e r , s n o i g e l f o y s u o i r o l g , y n a m r e g n i s u o i r e t s y m f o s e i d s u c s r o r e p m e e h t s a e r e m o R f o y t i c e h t n e h t n i d n a y r a t i l c i l b u p e R n i y t i c e d i s t u o g n i y a y b d e t u t i t s n i n o i t i s o p , t c e f e n a h t l u f r e w o p e r o m e m a c e b r i t s o t d e g a n a m s u n a j d n a , i r p a C n i t u o s a w s u n a j e S t a h t e f i w ’ s u i r e b i T e h t f o d n a , p u o r g r a l , e r i p m e o t d e h c a t t a n i m d a n e m d e e r o r e p m e d a b a h t i w y a w a Wednesday, January 4, 2017 republic 
 -the Praetorian guard does not want to do this, they are an institution of the emperor 
 -so the guards take matters into their own hand, rush into the palace and find Claudius hiding behind a curtain and they nominate him as emperor 
 
 Claudius: AD 41-56 
 -the man hiding behind the curtain, the first time that the army creates an emperor, and will happen now on with frequency 
 -appealing to modern sensibilities 
 -he was a scholar, interested in etruscan, wrote poetry, he wasn't the extravagant figure of Caligula 
 -he is older when made emperor, had escaped notice in the imperial household because he was an unimposing figure, had a limp, stutter 
 -he is a bright competent leader for much of his reign, does useful things for the economy 
 -invades Britian 
 -not good at being a husband or slave owner, his household is in disarray, begins to be controlled by his wives and his imperial freedmen, loses control in the inner workings of his household 
 -makes him a laughing stock to the historians who record his life 
 -he murdered by poison, done by his wife Agripina, who wants her son nero to gain the throne 
 
 Nero: 56-69 AD 
 -only 17 when he becomes emperor 
 -young like caligula, is a man of culture, into theatre and drama and gladiatorial games 
 -quite popular initially 
 -probably ruled well at the beginning of his time in office, but becomes 41 r e h e v a h d n a t a o b g n i s p a l l o c a l u f s s e c c u s t o n t u b t i r o r e p m e t x e n s a n i a p s l a i r e p m I d n a n a t s u g u A n a f o s i n o i t c a c i t a m o l p i d t u b n o i t c a r a e w s y o b n r o b e e r f l l a , a l l u b e r u t p l u c s k e e r e r u g i f l a t o i r a h c y r a t i l i m a n i s r e e r t a n o r u o m r a d e t a e f e d e h y r o t c i v r i e h t o t t n e m u n o m y l l a u s g n i h t t n a
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