CNPS 363 Lecture Notes - Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Social Learning Theory

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UBC
Department
Counselling Psychology
Course
CNPS 363
CNPS 363 Lecture 4
Topic: Social learning career theory (Planned happenstance) John Krumboltz
Reflect
Social learning career theory
- Critique of trait and factor (matching) and developmental theories
o Those theories assume a stable labor market and don’t take into account
potential barriers
o Assume a relatively fixed developmental pattern
o Do not fully account for the role of the human capacity to learn, problem-solve,
adapt and change
o A changing person in a changing environment career decision making is
dynamic not definitive
Background to Krumboltz: Bandura’s social learning theory
- Influenced by Bandura’s social learning theory
- Bandura’s three major types of learning experiences in social learning theory:
o Instrumental (operant conditioning) : reward and punishment
o Associative (classical conditioning): previously neutral event is paired with a
positive/negative event/stimulus
o Vicarious (observational): learning by observing others
Social learning career theory
- Krumboltz saw that trait and factor approaches (i.e., interest inventories) help clients
make career decisions by providing information, but not deal with change or deal with
conflicts & relationships at work
- Krumboltz proposes that clients can learn skills for career goal-setting, decision-making,
coping and thriving in transition
- Career clients can to be empowered to take action, and try new ways of being and
thinking
Krumboltz Social Learning Theory of Career (SLTC)
- The focus of career counseling is on learning new behaviors and ways of thinking
- Counselor’s main task is to enhance learning opportunities for clients
- Not very assessment based
Main assumptions of Krumboltz’ SLTC
- One’s career preferences are a result of prior learning experiences
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- Behavior is best understood as stemming from learned experiences rather than
stemming primarily from innate qualities
- People are capable of learning new things
- Human beings are intelligent problem solvers who strive to control their environment
- Uncertainty is an acceptable and positive condition. Can be used to catalyze exploration
and create opportunities for new learning. Uncertainty is a GOOD thing
- Central proposition: individuals make career decisions based primarily on behaviors
(actions) and cognitions (thoughts or beliefs)
- Six sub-propositions from this theory about career decisions:
o People will express a preference for an occupation:
1. If they have succeeded at tasks they think typical of an occupation
(reward/punishment)
2. If role models have been positively reinforced from doing the work
(vicarious learning)
3. If someone has spoken positively about the occupation (associative
learning)
o People will express a dislike for an occupation:
1. If they have failed at tasks they think typical of an occupation
2. If role models have not been reinforced during the work
3. If someone has spoken negatively about the occupation
SLTC Krumboltz
- Four determinants of career development and choices:
o Genetic endowment
o Environmental factors
o Learning experiences
o Task approach skills
Genetic endowment
- Aspects that are inherited or innate rather than learned
- Gender, physical appearance, predisposition to illness
- Special abilities that individuals are born with artistic, athletic, intelligence
- The greater a person’s innate abilities the more likely they’ll respond to learning
opportunities
Environmental conditions/events
- Beyond control of the individual
o social conditions: change in society
o educational conditions: how available is education in one’s community
o occupational conditions: labor market
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Document Summary

Topic: social learning career theory (planned happenstance) john krumboltz. Bandura"s three major types of learning experiences in social learning theory: Instrumental (operant conditioning) : reward and punishment: associative (classical conditioning): previously neutral event is paired with a positive/negative event/stimulus, vicarious (observational): learning by observing others. Krumboltz saw that trait and factor approaches (i. e. , interest inventories) help clients make career decisions by providing information, but not deal with change or deal with conflicts & relationships at work. Krumboltz proposes that clients can learn skills for career goal-setting, decision-making, coping and thriving in transition. Career clients can to be empowered to take action, and try new ways of being and thinking. The focus of career counseling is on learning new behaviors and ways of thinking. Counselor"s main task is to enhance learning opportunities for clients. One"s career preferences are a result of prior learning experiences. Behavior is best understood as stemming from learned experiences rather than stemming primarily from innate qualities.

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