COMM 292 Lecture Notes - Machiavellianism, Externals, Work Ethic

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
UBC
Department
Commerce
Course
COMM 292
Professor
PART 1: UNDERSTANDING THE WORKPLACE
Chapter 2: Perception, Personality, & Emotions
WHAT IS PERCEPTION, & WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
perception = process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning
to their environment
- Peoples behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is
FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
Factors
Perceiver
attitudes
motives
interests
past experiences
expectations
- interpretation is heavily influenced by perceivers personal
characteristics
(e.g. we often interpret othersbehaviours based on our own
characteristics we see what we expect to see)
- cultural differences
Target
novelty
motion
sounds
size
background
proximity
- physical & time closeness unrelated objects grouped together
(e.g. objects close to each other perceived together)
(e.g. assignment of new manager + increase in sales:
may not be related, but b/c of timing, perceived as related)
- similarity, probabilitythat they be perceived as a common
group
Situation
time
work setting
social setting
- elements in surrounding environment influence perceptions
(e.g. shorts & T-shirts in social setting
appropriate
in work setting
not appropriate)
PERCEPTUAL ERRORS
Attribution
Theory
= when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we try to
determine whether its internally/externally caused
- Internally(Int.) caused: under personal control
Externally(Ext.) caused: result from outside causes; person forced by situation
3 BEHAVIOURAL RULES
1) Distinctiveness
High(Seldom) Ext.
Low(Frequent) Int.
2) Consensus
High(Frequent)Ext.
Low(Seldom) Int.
3) Consistency
High(Frequent) Int.
Low(Seldom) Ext.
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PART 1: UNDERSTANDING THE WORKPLACE
Fundamental attribution error = tendency to underestimate influence of Ext.
factors & overestimate influence of Int. factors when judging others behaviours
Self-serving bias = tendency for ppl to attribute their own successes to Int. factors
while putting blame for failures on Ext. factors
Selective
Perception
= ppls selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background,
experience, attitudes
- speed-readothers, we see what we want to see
risk: drawing inaccurate, unwarranted conclusions from ambiguous situation
Halo Effect
= drawing general impression of an individual on basis of a single characteristic
(e.g. student rates prof
may give more weight to a single trait)
- most extreme when: - perceived traits are ambiguous & have moral tones
- perceiver had limited experience w/ the traits being judged
Contrast
Effects
= our reaction to 1 person is often influenced by other ppl we recently encountered
- we don’t evaluate a person in isolation
(e.g. candidate receives more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre
applicants, but less favorable evaluation if preceded by strong applicants)
Projection
= attributing ones own characteristics to other ppl
- ppl perceive others according to what they themselves are like
Stereotyping
= judging someone based on ones perception of the group to which that person
belongs
- widespread, although may be inaccurate & lead to prejudice
Prejudice = unfounded dislike of a person/group based on their belonging to a
particular stereotyped group
- has ve emotional content added
WHY DO PERCEPTION AND JUDGMENT MATTER?
- Hiring & employees performance appraisal (promotions, pay raises, continuation of employment)
depends very much on perceptual process/bias of employers
*study found out managers in HK & US were more likely to promote ppl similar to themselves
ppl in organizations are always judging each other!
Self-fulfilling prophecy = a person will behave in ways consistent w/ how he is perceived by others
(Pygmalion effect)
expectations become reality
PERSONALITY
Personality = stable patterns of behaviour & consistent internal states that determine how an
individual reacts to & interacts w/ others
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PART 1: UNDERSTANDING THE WORKPLACE
Personality Determinants
Heredity
- some personality traits may be built into genetic code
e.g. shyness, fear, distress
Environmental
Factors
- culture in which we’re raised
- early conditioning
- norms among family, friends, social groups
e.g. North Americanss emphasis on industriousness, success, competition Protestant
work rather than on family, cooperation, getting along with others
Situational
Factors
- demands of different situations call forth diff. aspects of ones personality
- not yet have neat classification scheme that would tell us the impact of various
situations; we only know certain situations limit many behaviours, vice versa
Personality Traits
= enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behaviour (16 primary/source traits)
Methods used to determine personality traits:
Myers-Briggs
Type
Indicator
(MBTI)
= personality test that taps 4 characteristics and classifies ppl into 1 of 16 personality
types (e.g. INTJ: visionary, ESTJ: organizers)
- even tho not proved to be valid measure, still used widely
- Classified along these dimensions:
Extraversion (E) /
Introversion (I)
refers to how ppl focus themselves:
inside (introversion) / outside (extraversion)
Sensing (S) /
Intuiting (N)
how ppl gather info:
very systematically (sensing) / relying on intuition
(intuiting)
Thinking (T) /
Feeling (F)
how ppl prefer to make decisions:
objectively, impersonally / subjectively, interpersonally
(thinking) (feeling)
Judging (J) /
Perceiving (P)
how ppl order their daily life:
being decisive, planned / spontaneous, flexible
(judging) (perceiving)
Big Five
Model
5 DIMENTIONS:
Extraversion
- persons comfort level w/ relationships
- describes degree to which a person is sociable,
talkative, assertive
Agreeableness
- propensity to defer to others
- describes degree to which a person is good-natured,
cooperative, trusting
Conscientiousness
- measure of reliability
- describes degree to which person is responsible,
dependable, persistent, achievement-oriented
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Document Summary

Chapter 2: perception, personality, & emotions (cid:3)what is perception, & why is it important? perception = process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning to their environment. People"s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is (cid:3)factors influencing perception. Interpretation is heavily influenced by perceiver"s personal characteristics (e. g. we often interpret others" behaviours based on our own characteristics we see what we expect to see) Physical & time closeness (cid:2) unrelated objects grouped together (e. g. objects close to each other perceived together) (e. g. assignment of new manager + increase in sales: may not be related, but b/c of timing, perceived as related) Similarity(cid:1), probability(cid:1)that they be perceived as a common group. Elements in surrounding environment influence perceptions (e. g. shorts & t-shirts in social setting (cid:1) appropriate in work setting (cid:1) not appropriate) = when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we try to determine whether it"s internally/externally caused.

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